Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of small for gestational age and low birth weight infants in Chinese population.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar 16:jc20144407. [Epub ahead of print]
Chen YH1, Fu L, Hao JH, Yu Z, Zhu P, Wang H, Xu YY, Zhang C, Tao FB, Xu X.
Vitamin D deficiency is common in the pregnant women. Nevertheless, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risks of small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW) infants is uncertain.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and the risks of SGA and LBW infants in Chinese population.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was a population-based birth cohort study that recruited total 3658 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. The rate and relative risk (RR) for SGA and LBW infants were calculated among subjects with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy.
There was a positive correlation between maternal serum 25(OH)D level and offspring birth weight (r=0.477, P<0.001). Further analysis showed that 4.98% neonates were LBW infants among subjects with vitamin D deficiency (RR: 12.00; 95%CI: 4.37, 33.00) and 1.32% among subjects with vitamin D insufficiency (RR: 3.18; 95%CI: 1.07, 9.48). After adjustment for confounders, RR for LBW infants was 12.31 (95%CI: 4.47, 33.89) among subjects with vitamin D deficiency and 3.15 (95%CI: 1.06, 9.39) among subjects with vitamin D insufficiency. Moreover, 16.01% neonates were SGA infants among subjects with vitamin D deficiency (RR: 5.72; 95%CI: 3.80, 8.59) and 5.59% among subjects with vitamin D insufficiency (RR: 1.99; 95%CI: 1.27, 3.13).
After adjustment for confounders, RR for SGA infants was 6.47 (95%CI: 4.30, 9.75) among subjects with vitamin D deficiency and 2.01 (95%CI: 1.28, 3.16) among subjects with vitamin D insufficiency.
CONCLUSION: Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of SGA and LBW infants in Chinese population.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Boys who were born Small for Gestational age are 1.9X more likely to be infertile – Dec 2019
- Pregnancy complications from 3 to 55 X more likely to have these health problems if low Vitamin D
7 X more likely to have low birth weight infant very similar to 6.5X of study on this page
- Low birth weight far more likely if African-American (low vitamin D) – 1997, Aug 2018
- Births with low vitamin D weighted less (Hispanic too) – Dec 2015
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
13 health pregnancy/child health problems associated with low vitamin D
- Half as many Small for Gestational Age infants when take 600 IU of vitamin D while pregnant – June 2018
- (Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW) 277 items as of March 2015
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Low vitamin D increased probability of low birth weight by 60 percent – meta-analysis June 2012
More SGA for darker skins (less vitamin D)
Wikipedia on Large, Appropriate, and Small for Gestational Age
SGA High mortality before, within a month, and within a few weeks of birth but including still birth (Vertical axis = %)_
|8010 visitors, last modified 20 Dec, 2019,
|5191||SGA vs weeks Wikipedia.jpg||admin 17 Mar, 2015 17:29||51.65 Kb||4205|
|5190||Gestational age mortality.jpg||admin 17 Mar, 2015 16:08||38.25 Kb||1366|
|5189||SGA Mortality.jpg||admin 17 Mar, 2015 16:08||30.84 Kb||1390|
|5188||SGA Dark Skin.jpg||admin 17 Mar, 2015 16:07||41.45 Kb||1363|
|5187||SGA F1.jpg||admin 17 Mar, 2015 15:59||45.12 Kb||1857|
|5186||small for gestational age.pdf||PDF 2015||admin 17 Mar, 2015 15:53||448.83 Kb||1430|