Obesity ==> reduces the level of vitamin D avaiable in the blood
Obesity ==> outdoors less ==> decreases vitamin D from the sun
Low vitamin D ==> Increased Cancer
Table of contents
- Obesity linked to 13 cancers, the linkage is probably vitamin D – Aug 2016
- Obesity and cancer: the role of vitamin D - 2014
- Association between obesity and ovarian cancer - Spanish - May 2014
- Obesity increases risk of cancer - perhaps vitamin D - Aug 2010
- BMI associated with 3.6% of new Cancer - Lancet 2014 (not mention vitamin D)
- BMI and Cancer Aug 2014 Lancet (not mention low vitamin D)
- See also VitaminDWiki
BMC Cancer 2014, 14:712 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-712
Thurkaa Shanmugalingam, Danielle Crawley, Cecilia Bosco, Jennifer Melvin, Sabine Rohrmann, Simon Chowdhury, Lars Holmberg and Mieke Van Hemelrijck
Forest Plot: Obesity and Vitamin D
It is estimated that 20% of all cancer cases are caused by obesity. Vitamin D is thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying this association. This review aims to summarise the evidence for the mediating effect of vitamin D on the link between obesity and cancer.
Three literature searches using PubMed and Embase were conducted to assess whether vitamin D plays an important role in the pathway between obesity and cancer: (1) obesity and cancer; (2) obesity and vitamin D; and (3) vitamin D and cancer. A systematic review was performed for (1) and (3), whereas a meta-analysis including random effects analyses was performed for (2).
- (1) 32 meta-analyses on obesity and cancer were identified; the majority reported a positive association between obesity and risk of cancer.
- (2) Our meta-analysis included 12 original studies showing a pooled relative risk of 1.52 (95% CI: 1.33-1.73) for risk of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) in obese people (body mass index >30 kg/m2).
- (3) 21 meta-analyses on circulating vitamin D levels and cancer risk were identified with different results for different types of cancer.
There is consistent evidence for a link between obesity and cancer as well as obesity and low vitamin D. However, it seems like the significance of the mediating role of vitamin D in the biological pathways linking obesity and cancer is low. There is a need for a study including all three components while dealing with bias related to dietary supplements and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms.
Rev Med Chil. 2014 May;142(5):593-598.
[Article in Spanish]
Valladares M, Corsini G, Romero C.
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.
Obesity and increased risk of cancer: does decrease of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with increasing body mass index explain some of the association?
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Aug;54(8):1127-33. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900512.
Lagunova Z1, Porojnicu AC, Grant WB, Bruland Ø, Moan JE.
1Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. zoya.lagunova at rr-research.no
Low levels of vitamin D and excess body weight are both factors associated with increased risk of cancer. The increased risk seems to be proportional to the increase in BMI, and to decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Our earlier investigations suggest that serum 25(OH)D levels decrease with increasing BMI. Although the connection between cancer risk, BMI and vitamin D status might be arbitrary, it has not been discussed in the literature so far. In this study, we analyze data published in current meta-analysis, prospective studies, and systematic reviews on cancer-specific risk attributed to high BMI and low vitamin D status. The contribution of low 25(OH)D levels associated with high BMI to increased cancer risk was calculated for 13 vitamin-D-sensitive cancers with a focus on colorectal and breast cancer as the most frequently studied vitamin-D-sensitive cancer types.
Our study suggests that a low vitamin D status may explain at least 20% of the cancer risk attributable to high BMI.
The contribution of low 25(OH)D to the increased cancer risk with increasing BMI may be different for different cancer types.
Thus, we find 40% for breast cancer, and 26% and 75% for colorectal cancer in men and women, respectively.
Publisher charges $6 to rent the PDF
Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study
The Lancet Oncology, Early Online Publication, 26 Nov 2014, doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)71123-4
Dr Melina Arnold PhD a arnoldm at fellows.iarc.fr, Nirmala Pandeya PhD d †, Graham Byrnes PhD b, Prof Andrew G Renehan PhD e, Gretchen A Stevens DSc f, Prof Majid Ezzati FMedSci g, Jacques Ferlay MSc a, J Jaime Miranda PhD h, Isabelle Romieu PhD c, Rajesh Dikshit PhD i, David Forman PhD a, Isabelle Soerjomataram PhD a
Background: High body-mass index (BMI; defined as 25 kg/m2 or greater) is associated with increased risk of cancer. To inform public health policy and future research, we estimated the global burden of cancer attributable to high BMI in 2012.
Methods: In this population-based study, we derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) using relative risks and BMI estimates in adults by age, sex, and country. Assuming a 10-year lag-period between high BMI and cancer occurrence, we calculated PAFs using BMI estimates from 2002 and used GLOBOCAN2012 data to estimate numbers of new cancer cases attributable to high BMI. We also calculated the proportion of cancers that were potentially avoidable had populations maintained their mean BMIs recorded in 1982. We did secondary analyses to test the model and to estimate the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use and smoking.
Findings: Worldwide, we estimate that 481 000 or 3·6% of all new cancer cases in adults (aged 30 years and older after the 10-year lag period) in 2012 were attributable to high BMI. PAFs were greater in women than in men (5·4% vs 1·9%). The burden of attributable cases was higher in countries with very high and high human development indices (HDIs; PAF 5·3% and 4·8%, respectively) than in those with moderate (1·6%) and low HDIs (1·0%). Corpus uteri, postmenopausal breast, and colon cancers accounted for 63·6% of cancers attributable to high BMI. A quarter (about 118 000) of the cancer cases related to high BMI in 2012 could be attributed to the increase in BMI since 1982.
Interpretation: These findings emphasise the need for a global effort to abate the increasing numbers of people with high BMI. Assuming that the association between high BMI and cancer is causal, the continuation of current patterns of population weight gain will lead to continuing increases in the future burden of cancer.
Funding: World Cancer Research Fund International, European Commission (Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and US National Institutes of Health.
Overweight and obesity linked to 10 common cancers, over 12,000 cases every year in UK Science Daily on a different Lancet Study] – Aug 2014
A higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of developing 10 of the most common cancers, the largest study of its kind on BMI and cancer, involving more than 5 million adults in the UK, shows. Each 5 kg/m² increase in BMI was clearly linked with higher risk of cancers of the uterus (62% increase), gallbladder (31%), kidney (25%), cervix (10%), thyroid (9%), and leukemia (9%). Higher BMI also increased the overall risk of liver, colon, ovarian, and breast cancer
- Overview Cancer and vitamin D
- Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 153 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Sept 2020
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
Obesity category listing with associated searches has the following clickable graphic
Obese need 2 - 3 X more vitamin D
Vitamin D and Cancer Treatment and Prevention – presentations May 2011 has BMI-Low vitamin D connection charts
Diseases which are related due to vitamin D deficiency which has the following chart
Obesity increases Cancer - perhaps due to low vitamin D - many articles
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