Do Premenopausal Women with Major Depression Have Low Bone Mineral Density? A 36-Month Prospective Study.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40894. Epub 2012 Jul 27.
Cizza G cizzag at intra.niddk.nih.gov, Mistry S, Nguyen VT, Eskandari F, Martinez P, Torvik S, Reynolds JC, Gold PW, Sinai N, Csako G; for the POWER Study Group.
Section on Neuroendocrinology of Obesity, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested, but prospective evaluation in premenopausal women is lacking.
METHODS: Participants of this prospective study were 21 to 45 year-old premenopausal women with MDD (n?=?92) and healthy controls (n?=?44). We measured BMD at the anteroposterior lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, mid-distal radius, trochanter, and Ward's triangle, as well as serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), ionized calcium, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol levels at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured at baseline.
RESULTS: At baseline, BMD tended to be lower in women with MDD compared to controls and BMD remained stable over time in both groups.
At baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months intact PTH levels were significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls.
At baseline, ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in women with MDD compared to controls.
At baseline and 12 months, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation, was significantly higher in women with MDD vs. controls.
Plasma ACTH was also higher in women with MDD at baseline and 6 months.
Serum osteocalcin, urinary N-telopeptide, serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol levels were not different between the two groups throughout the study.
CONCLUSION: Women with MDD tended to have lower BMD than controls over time.
Larger and longer studies are necessary to extend these observations with the possibility of prophylactic therapy for osteoporosis.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00006180. PMID: 22848407
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- Diseases which become related due to vitamin D deficiency which has the following chart
The link above has scores of disease pair associations which have been observed in previous publications similar to this one.
Most of the publications either ignored or minimized the probable vitamin D connection.
- Diseases which are related due to vitamin D deficiency which contains the following list
Some of the disease associations: Disease 1 ==> Disease 2
- Statins ==> many diseases associated with low vitamin D update Jan 2012
- Parkinson, Alzheimer, Stroke ==>Hip fracture
- Parkinson's ==> Osteoporosis
- Low Grip Strength ==> Osteoporosis
- Immune System disease (CVID) ==> Osteoporosis
- COPD ==> Osteoporosis
- COPD ==> osteoporosis, cardio., skeletal muscle, anemia, metabolic synd.
- HIV ==> Osteoporosis
- Prostate Cancer ==> Osteoporosis
- Atopic Dermatitis ==> Osteopenia 1.8 X
- Prostate Cancer ==> Melanoma
- Skin wrinkles ==> Fragile bones
- Depression ==> Fragile bones
- Depressed ==> 2x more Stroke
- Depression ==> Heart Disease 40% increase,, Forbes
- Depression + Stroke ==> death (3x)
- Depression ==> premature birth
96% increase in premature birth if anti-depressants in late pregnancy
- Depression ==> Cognitive Decline
- Acne ==> Depression
- Depression <==> Diabetes
- Diabetes ==> Cognitive impairment
- Diabetes ==> Vertebral fracture in men only
- Diabetes ==> Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Diabetes ==> PCOS women
- PCOS ==> Diabetes
- Periodontitis + Low Vit D ==>Diabetes 2.8X
- Diabetes ==> Pancreatic Cancer
- Diabetes ==> Alzheimer's
- Diabetes (T1) ==> Multiple Sclerosis
- Diabetes ==> Parkinson's
- Smoking ==> weak bones
- Dental problems==> depression (pregnancy)
- Endometriosis ==> Coronary Heast Disease 3X
- Pregnancy ==> dental problems
- Pregnancy ==>Restless Legs
- No molar ==> 12X increase in Breast Cancer
- Obesity ==> Diabetes
- Obesity <==> Multiple Sclerosis
- Obesity ==> Cognitive Decline
- Obesity ==> Cancer
- Obesity ==> Migraine Headache
- Aortic calcification==> Vertebral fracture
- Low vitamin D for various reasons ==> 9X Suicide
- Asthma ==> Heart Problems and death
- Kidney ==> Tooth loss (7x increase)
- Kidney Disease ==> Osteoporosis 2014 full text
- Multiple Sclerosis ==> 2.6X increased Migrane Headache, web, full text online
- Multiple Sclerosis ==> 2X more Fractures, web, full text online
- Multiple Sclerosis ==>>Fibromyalgia 2015
- Multiple Sclerosis ==> Diabetes (T1)
- Psoriasis ==> Metabolic Syndrome on the web
- Psoriasis ==> Metabolic Syndrome
- Psoriasis ==> Kidney Disease
- Psoriasis ==> Heart problems
- Psoriasis ==> Diabetes
- Celiac Disease ==> Anemia, Psorasis
- Celiac Disease ==> poor bones Aug 2014
- Intestinal Failure (gut) ==> Low Bone Mineral Density
- Chronic Pancreatitis ==>Painful bones
- Rheumatoid Arthritis ==> Cardiovascular
- IBD ==> Cancer
- Stroke ==> Hip Fracture
- Stroke ==> 2.4 X Parkinson's Disease
- Restless Legs <==> ADHD
- Schizophrenia ==> Depression
- Schizophrenia ==> Diabetes (3x increase)
- Sleep Apnea ==>Fatty Liver disease
- Sleep Apnea ==>Gout
- Gout ==> Depression 3.8 X
- Hepatitis-C ==> Cancers - liver, prostate, ?
- Hepatitis -C ==> peripheral arterial disease 12X increase if > 65 years old
- Vitiligo ==> thyroid problems 2013
- Rickets ==> Autism
- Autism ==> Poor Bones
- Rickets ==> Breathing
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