Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy and small-for-gestational age in black and white infants.
Burris HH, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA Jr, Litonjua AA, Huh SY, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW.
Ann Epidemiol. 2012 May 31.
Department of Neonatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Division of Newborn Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
In a prospective prenatal cohort study, we examined associations of second trimester and cord plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with small-for-gestational age (SGA) and the extent to which vitamin D might explain black/white differences in SGA.
We studied 1067 white and 236 black mother-infant pairs recruited from eight obstetrical offices early in pregnancy in Massachusetts.
We analyzed 25(OH)D levels using an immunoassay and performed multivariable logistic models to estimate the odds of SGA by category of 25(OH)D level.
Mean (SD) second trimester 25(OH)D level was 60 nmol/L (SD, 21) and was lower for black (46 nmol/L SD, 22) than white (62 nmol/L SD, 20) women.
Fifty-nine infants were SGA (4.5%), and more black than white infants were SGA (8.5% vs. 3.7%).
The odds of SGA were higher with maternal 25(OH)D levels less than 25 versus 25 nmol/L or greater (adjusted odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-8.63).
The increased odds of SGA among black versus white participants decreased from an odds ratio of 2.04(1.04, 4.04) to 1.68(0.82, 3.46) after adjusting for 25(OH)D.
Second trimester 25(OH)D levels less than 25 nmol/L were associated with higher odds of SGA.
Our data raise the possibility that vitamin D status may contribute to racial disparities in SGA.
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- 3.7X decrease in Very Low Weight Births (following huge increase in Vitamin D sales) - June 2020
- Low birth weight far more likely if African-American (low vitamin D) – 1997, Aug 2018
- Why vitamin D reduces premature birth - April 2011 Note: 2X death rate for premature birth
- Premature delivery associated with low vitamin D in Japanese women – Mar 2011
- Premature or low birth weight resulted in children 3X more likely to be anxious – May 2011
- 50% of very low birthweight infants develop osteopenia with rickets before May 2011
- 7X more likely to have low birth weight babies when mother very low on vitamin D – March 2010
- Arab pre-term infants often have less than 10 ng of vitamin D - 2010
- Small for gestational age and insulin at age 6 – Sept 2012
- Pre-term births report USA-Today May 2012
Of all births: US Blacks 17%, US whites 11%, Germany 9%, UK Canada, Australia 8%, France 7%, Japan 6%
For 62 out of 65 countries, the rate of premature births has been increasing
comment by a reader " maternal obesity which increases chance of premature delivery 30%" see original 126 page study
- Osteopenia in preterm infants – May 2012