Position: Director of Pediatric Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina, USA
The function and requirement of vitamin D during pregnancy for both mother and fetus has remained a mystery.
This fact was highlighted by The Cochrane Review in 1999 that reported a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with respect to vitamin D requirements during pregnancy.
Unfortunately, during the past decade only a single RCT has been performed with respect to vitamin D requirements during pregnancy.
In this review we will discuss vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy as well as the consequences of vitamin D deficiency on skeletal, non-skeletal and birth outcomes using birth observational data and data from our recent RCT.
New RCT data strongly support previous observational studies in that improving nutritional vitamin D status will improve birth outcomes.
The new RCT data indicates that 4,000 IU/d vitamin D3 during pregnancy will "normalize" vitamin D Metabolism and improve birth outcomes including primary cesarean section and co-morbidities of pregnancy with no Risk of side effects.
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- International Symposium on Vitamin D Deficiency - Abu Dhabi March 2012
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D big concern for the Middle East
- CDC vitamin D statistics for women: including blacks and high BMI – March 2012 which has the following chart
- Overview Vitamin D: Before, During, and After Pregnancy many items by Dr. Hollis
Summary of Overview as of March 2012
| Dose |
|Cumulative Benefit||Blood level and notes|| Co-factors |
|400|| + less infant rickets |
+ 3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
+ fewer child seizures
|<30 ng/ml||Not needed||No effect||$3|
|2000|| + More likely to get pregnant naturally or via IVF |
+ fewer dental problems with pregnancy
+ 8X less diabetes
+ 4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
+ 4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
+ 5X less child asthma
+ 2X less language problems age 10
|42 ng/ml||Desirable||< 750 mg||$12|
|4000|| + 2X fewer pregnancy complications|
+ 2X fewer per-term births
| 49 ng/ml|
Test Vitamin D
|Must have||< 750 mg||$175|
|6000|| + probable larger benefits for items listed above|
+ Enough D for breastfed infant
+ Perhaps prevent 2nd autistic child
| Test Vitamin D |
clinical trials underway
|Must have||< 750 mg||$200|