On the roles of solar ultraviolet irradiance and smoking on the diagnosis of second cancers after diagnosis of melanoma
Dermato Endocrinology Volume 4, Issue 1 January/February/March 2012
William B. Grant
(Note: The words are in original order at the bottom of this page)
Several recent papers have reported standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for second cancers after diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
This review divides the types of cancer into five types:
- those for which ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D reduces risk;
SIRs were either significantly elevated or not significantly different from 1.0.
- those for which UVB/vitamin D reduces risk and smoking increases risk;
SIR for kidney cancer was significantly elevated
SIRs for cervical, laryngeal, and rectal cancer were significantly reduced.
- smoking related;
All SIRs were significantly reduced
- unknown UVB/vitamin D and smoking sensitivity; and
SIRs for all types except lip cancer were significantly elevated
- those for which UV irradiance increases risk.
SIRs for all types except lip cancer were significantly elevated.
A registry linkage study found significantly reduced SIRs for second cancers after diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer in sunny countries but found increased SIRs in less sunny countries.
The SIRs for second cancer for melanoma were elevated in both sunny and less sunny countries.
This review concludes that sun exposure without sufficient vitamin D production may explain the elevated SIRs for vitamin D–sensitive cancers, whereas smoking—through production of skin elastosis, thereby reducing the risk of melanoma—probably explains the findings for smoking-related cancers.
Thus, guidelines on UV irradiance should emphasize regular moderate UVB irradiance rather than avoidance for those who can tan.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
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