Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Volume 22, Number 4, November 2011, Supplement; E-ISSN: 1548-6869 Print ISSN: 1049-2089; DOI: 10.1353/hpu.2011.0161
Jorge N. Artaza, Sandra Contreras, Leah A. Garcia, Rajnish Mehrotra, Gary Gibbons, Ralph Shohet, David Martins, Keith C. Norris
The Johns Hopkins University Press
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation.
Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes.
African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD).
We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities.
- Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D
- All items in Dark Skin and vitamin D
- Differences in black and non-black mortality and vitamin D – Oct 2012
- Dark skin associated with low vitamin D and obesity-related diseases – Sept 2011
- Lack of vitamin D closely associated with black health disparities – Nov 2010 - Great charts
- Vitamin D Council vs FDA concerning vitamin D deficiency in blacks and others - June 2011
- Do blacks have a 5 year life penalty due to low vitamin D
- Blacks may not need as much Vitamin D many articles
- Vitamin D insufficiency in UK youths – 37X more likely if dark skin – July 2011
- Hypothesis that lack of vitamin D increases blood pressure in blacks – July 2010
- 88 % of African immigrants to Melborne had less than 20 ng of vitamin D
- 82 % of black US adults less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2011
The items in Cardiovascular and Dark Skin are listed here:
- 26 health factors increase the risk of COVID-19 – all are proxies for low vitamin D
- After Heart Failure Blacks are 45 percent more likely to re-enter the hospital in a month – Oct 2020
- Hypertension not controlled by 26 ng of Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly A-A) – RCT Nov 2017
- Cardiovascular death reduction in dark skin migrants by just 1,000 IU of vitamin D – May 2015
- Types of vitamin D, African American teenage girls, and measures of heart fitness – Dec 2014
- Low vitamin D is a risk factor for vascular diseases in African Americans - Aug 2012
- Low vitamin D increases risk of cardiovascular disease in African Americans – 2011
- Low vitamin D associated with obesity-related diseases for ethnic minorities – Sept 2011
- Vitamin D accounts for 25 percent of the racial differences in blood pressure – Oct 2011
- Striking ethnic health disparity – blacks dying due to lack of vitamin D – Nov 2011
- Studies linked low vitamin D and dark skin to Obesity, Diabetes, and heart – June 2011
- 50000 IU vitamin D2 weekly helped blacks with heart problems – Feb 2011
- Not yet certain that vitamin D reduces cardiovascular and diabetes in blacks – Mar 2011
- Improved blood flow in blacks with just 2000 IU of vitamin D – Feb 2011
- Calcium with Vitamin D2 then D3 helps A-A after heart failure – Jan 2011
- Aortas of 16 year old blacks helped by 2000 IU of vitamin D – July 2010
- Race CVD and Vitamin D - Newsletter Mar 2010
The health disparity for Blacks is almost the same as having a low level of vitamin D - see following table
Black Disparity 16 vs 26 ng/ml breast cancer 1.34 1.26 colorectal cancer 1.43 1.44 cardiovascular disease 1.29 1.27 all-cause mortality 1.26 1.26
Striking ethnic health disparity – blacks dying due to lack of vitamin D – Nov 2011
- A-Fib Is More Dangerous for Blacks Than Whites NYT June 2016
"Compared with white people with A-fib, blacks with the condition were more than twice as likely to have a stroke, 42 percent more likely to go into heart failure, 76 percent more likely to have coronary heart disease, and nearly twice as likely to die prematurely."
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