Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):209-17. Epub 2011 May 25.
Chacko SA, Song Y, Manson JE, Van Horn L, Eaton C, Martin LW, McTiernan A, Curb JD, Wylie-Rosett J, Phillips LS, Plodkowski RA, Liu S.
Department of Epidemiology and the Program on Genomics and Nutrition, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
BACKGROUND: Low concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with cardiometabolic disorders; however, little is known about their relation to intermediate metabolic and lipid markers.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation of serum 25(OH)D concentrations to fasting insulin, glucose, dyslipidemia, adiposity, and prevalent metabolic syndrome.
DESIGN: We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 292 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium-Vitamin D (WHI-CaD) trial. Data were collected from 3 nested case-control studies that measured baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Inverse probability weighting was used to approximate parameter estimates for the WHI-CaD population.
RESULTS: In weighted linear regression models adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, month of blood draw, region, case-control status, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and history of cardiometabolic risk factors, there was an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with
- adiposity [body mass index (BMI): ? = -1.12 ± 0.30, P = 0.0002;
- waist circumference: ? = -3.57 ± 0.49, P < 0.0001;
- waist-hip ratio: ? = -0.01 ± 0.002, P < 0.0001,
- triglycerides (? = -0.10 ± 0.02, P < 0.0001), and
- triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratio (? = -0.11 ± 0.03, P = 0.0003).
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome for the highest (?52 nmol/L) compared with the lowest (<35 nmol/L) tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.56).
Significant associations remained after adjustment for BMI. We observed no significant associations with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), or homeostatic model assessment of ? cell function (HOMA-?).
CONCLUSION: Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations may be inversely associated with adiposity, triglycerides, triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratio, and metabolic syndrome but are not associated with LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, or HOMA-? in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.
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