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Deficiencies of Vitamin D and Calcium – Related Chronic Diseases – 2009


Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 October; 6(10): 2585–2607.
Published online 2009 October 2. doi: 10.3390/ijerph6102585
Meinrad Peterlik,1 meinrad.peterlik at meduniwien.ac.at;
Steven Boonen,2 Heide S. Cross,1 and Christel Lamberg-Allardt3
1 Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria; E-Mail: heide.cross at meduniwien.ac.at
2 Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Leuven University, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium; E-Mail: steven.boonen at uz.kuleuven.ac.be
3 Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Calcium Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Agnes Sjobergin katu 2, F-00014 Helsinki, Finland; E-Mail: christel.lamberg-allardt at helsinki.fi

Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases.

Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%), affecting both genders.

The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status.

Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.
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Many tables of deficiency of vitamin D and Calcium in many countries around the world i

Portions of tables for just the elderly

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Extracted from Table 1. Rating of evidence for association of vitamin D and/or calcium insufficiency with frequent chronic diseases

A. Convincing evidence from multiple epidemiological (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) large cohort studies, interventional trials and experimental studies

Cancer (colorectal, breast)

B. Good evidence from >3 observational studies and/or interventional trials

Cancer (renal , prostate, endometrial, ovarian, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, bladder) Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Cardiovascular disease
Neuromuscular dysfunctions Diabetes mellitus Type I Tuberculosis
Periodontal disease, tooth loss

C. Emerging evidence from observational studies

Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome Diabetes mellitus Type II
Cardiovascular disease
Neuromuscular dysfunctions
Periodontal disease, tooth loss

D. Evidence mainly from studies with animal models of the respective human disease

Inflammatory bowel disease
Multiple Sclerosis

See also VitaminDWiki

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
669 table1 deficiencies 2009.png Table 1 admin 31 Jul, 2011 19:04 125.08 Kb 1333
668 table6 deficiencies 2009.png Table 6 admin 31 Jul, 2011 18:45 111.70 Kb 1310
667 table3 deficiencies 2009.png Table 3 admin 31 Jul, 2011 18:45 102.64 Kb 1378