Bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 4.
Urbain P, Singler F, Ihorst G, Biesalski HK, Bertz H.
1] Department of Haematology/Oncology, Section of Nutrition, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany 2 Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
Background/Objectives:Mushrooms contain very little or any vitamin D(2) but are abundant in ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D(2) by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Our objective was to investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced mushrooms by UV-B in humans, and comparing it with a vitamin D(2) supplement.
Subjects/Methods:Fresh mushrooms were irradiated with an UV-B dose of 1.5?J/cm(2), increasing vitamin D(2) content from <1 to 491??g/100?g and made to an experimental soup. In this 5-week, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 young subjects with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ?50?nmol/l were randomly assigned into three groups ((a) mushroom, (b) supplement and (c) placebo). They received during winter (a) 28?000?IU (700??g) vitamin D(2) via the experimental soup, or (b) 28?000?IU vitamin D(2) via a supplement or (c) placebo, respectively.
Results:After 2 weeks, serum 25OHD was significantly higher in the mushroom than in the placebo group (P=0.001). The serum 25OHD concentrations in the mushroom and supplement groups rose significantly and similarly over the study period by 3.9?nmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.9, 4.8) and by 4.7?nmol/l per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7), respectively.
Conclusions:We are the first to demonstrate in humans that the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was effective in improving vitamin D status and not different to a vitamin D(2) supplement. This trial was registered at http://germanctr.de as DRKS00000195.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 4 May 2011; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.53.
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