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Reduced vitamin D and BMD and Neurological Conditions – April 2011

Bone Mineral Density in Adults Disabled Through Acquired Neurological Conditions: A Review

Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Volume 14, Issue 2 , Pages 85-94, April 2011
Bone Mineral Density in Adults Disabled Through Acquired Neurological Conditions: A Review
Áine Carroll
Received 10 June 2010; received in revised form 12 December 2010; accepted 13 December 2010. published online 07 April 2011.

This article is a review of the changes in bone mineral density (BMD), which occur in a number of acquired neurological conditions resulting in disability.
For each of

  • spinal cord injury,
  • stroke,
  • multiple sclerosis,
  • Parkinson’s disease, and
  • traumatic brain injury,

the following aspects are discussed, where information is available:

  • prevalence of low BMD according to World Health Organization diagnostic categories and recommended diagnostic method,
  • prevalence based on other diagnostic tools,
  • comparison of BMD with a control population,
  • rate of decline of BMD following onset of the neurological condition,
  • factors influencing decline;
    • mechanism of bone loss, and
    • fracture rates.

The common risk factors of immobilization and vitamin D deficiency would appear to cross all disability groups, with the most rapid phase of bone loss occurring in the acute and subacute phases of each condition.

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