Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in women aged 20-50 years consulting in general practice: a cross-sectional study.
Eur J Gen Pract. 2011 Feb 25.
Le Goaziou MF, Contardo G, Dupraz C, Martin A, Laville M, Schott-Pethelaz AM.
Department of General Practice, University Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, France.
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is often unidentified, although treatment is simple and inexpensive. Our objective was to estimate the influence of concealing clothes and other risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in women aged 20 to 50 years consulting general practitioners.
Methods: 13 GPs in the Rhone Alps area planned to recruit 300 women (100 veiled and 200 non-veiled) from January to March 2008. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH were measured in one single laboratory (Biomnis(®)) by a radio-immunoassay method. A survey was administered about dietary habits, sun exposure, and quality of life.
Results: Among 247 women enrolled, 196 were analysed: 61 wearing concealing clothes (31.2%) and 135 without (68.8%). As expected, 25(OH)D serum level was significantly lower in covered women (20.1 versus 38.9 nmol/l P < 0.001). Of women who did not wear concealing clothing, 39.3% had severe hypovitaminosis D (25(OH)D concentration < 30 nmol/l). Women wearing concealing clothes had more often other known risk factors such as dark skin (P < 0.001), less sunlight exposure, or a higher Body Mass Index (P = 0.009).
Besides concealing clothing (OR 6.37, 95% CI: 1.35-30.09), multivariate analyses revealed two independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency: no full-body sun exposure (OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.18-7.94) and no outdoor sports (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11-7.12) for threshold 52 nmol/l.
Conclusion: Young women consulting their GP had hypovitaminosis D more often than expected. Besides concealing clothing, absence of full body sun exposure during summer and of outdoor sports practice could suggest a possible vitamin D deficiency. PMID: 21348788
Average vitamin D with concealing clothing = 8 ng, vs 16 ng
6X more likely to have less than 21 ng vitamin D with concealing clothing
- 13 VitaminDWiki pages had CLOTH in title as of Aug 2021
- 27% of Turkish mothers has less than 11 ng of vitamin D
- Hypovitaminosis D in developing countries—prevalence, risk factors ... PDF
- If heavily clothed, very little vitamin D – Dec 2012
- Breast Cancer patients wearing concealing clothing were 13X more likely to be vitamin D deficient – March 2014
- Concealing Clothing in Canada: half the level of vitamin D in blood – May 2012
- VPS Healthcare in Abu Dhabi invested million dollars in Vitamin D research - Sept 2014 has the following chart
- Vitamin D status in Israeli pediatric type 1 diabetes patients: the AWeSoMe Study Group experience and literature review Oct 2016
Israel youths: 24 ng/mL, Israel religious youths (whole-year heavily dressed): 16 ng/mL
- Google Search for (burka OR hijab) "vitamin D" 133,000 hits Oct 2016
Hajab prevalence: Wikipedia