Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1017-22. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
Shahar DR, Schwarzfuchs D, Fraser D, Vardi H, Thiery J, Fiedler GM, Blüher M, Stumvoll M, Stampfer MJ, Shai I; DIRECT Group.
S Daniel Abraham Center for Health and Nutrition and the Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. dshahar at bgu.ac.il
BACKGROUND: The role of dairy calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentrations in weight loss is controversial.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the association of dairy calcium intake and serum vitamin D with weight loss.
DESIGN: We analyzed data from participants in the 2-y Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) (n = 322; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²): 31; mean age: 52 0y A representative sample (n = 126) was followed for 6 mo for serum vitamin D changes.
RESULTS: Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D concentrations decreased significantly across the tertiles of baseline BMI (25.6 ± 8.0, 24.1 ± 8.9, and 22.9 ± 6.8 ng/mL, respectively; P for trend = 0.02). Baseline concentrations of vitamin D and dairy calcium intake were not associated with subsequent weight loss. However, in repeated-measures models adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, total fat intake, and diet group assignment, higher 6-mo tertile levels of dairy calcium intake (median for tertiles: 156.5, 358.0, and 582.9 mg/d, respectively) and serum 25(OH)D (14.5, 21.2, and 30.2 ng/mL, respectively) were associated with increased weight loss across the 2-y intervention (-3.3, -3.5, and -5.3 kg, respectively, for dairy calcium; P = 0.043; -3.1, -3.8, and -5.6 kg)), respectively, for vitamin D; P = 0.013).
In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted simultaneously for age, sex, baseline BMI, total fat intake, diet group, vitamin D concentration, and dairy calcium, an increase of 1 SD in dairy calcium intake increased the likelihood of weight loss of >4.5 kg in the preceding 6 mo odds ratio (OR): 1.45; P = 0.046. A similar increase was seen for serum 25(OH)D at the 6-mo point (OR: 1.7; P = 0.009).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that both higher dairy calcium intake and increased serum vitamin D are related to greater diet-induced weight loss. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00160108. PMID: 20810979
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"In humans, dairy calcium exerted signi?cantly greater antiobesity effects than did supplemental calcium, probably due to its rich content of bioactive compounds"
"We observed that both higher dietary dairy calcium intake and increased serum vitamin D were independently associated with weight loss."
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Our participants chose to eat more dairy when they were advised on the number of protein groups to consume in their diet.
We did not add vitamin D, it increases in people who lost more weight.
The highest amount was between 2-3 cups dairy not just milk.
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Observation: Participants in the trial of three diets who chose to have more dairy lost the most weight and increased vitamin D.