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Lack of vitamin D and Calcium a world problem – strength of evidence etc – 2009

Vitamin D and Calcium Insufficiency-Related Chronic Diseases: an Emerging World-Wide Public Health Problem – Review

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009, 6(10), 2585-2607; doi:10.3390/ijerph6102585
Meinrad Peterlik 1, meinrad.peterlik at meduniwien.ac.at, Steven Boonen 2 email, Heide S. Cross 1 email and Christel Lamberg-Allardt 3 email
1 Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria
2 Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Leuven University, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium
3 Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Calcium Research Unit, University of Helsinki, Agnes Sjobergin katu 2, F-00014 Helsinki, Finland
Received: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 28 September 2009 / Published: 2 October 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Epidemiology)

Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencies are risk factors for multiple chronic diseases. Data from 46 recent studies from Europe, North America, South-East Asia and the South Pacific area clearly indicate that a low vitamin D status and inadequate calcium nutrition are highly prevalent in the general population (30–80%), affecting both genders. The extent of insufficiencies is particularly high in older populations, and in some geographical areas, also in children and in young women of child-bearing age, in ethnic minorities and immigrants, as well as in people of low socio-economic status. Enrichment of cereal grain products with vitamin D and calcium would be a viable approach to increase consumption and improve health outcomes in the general population worldwide.


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216 Lack of vitamin D and Calcium - 2009 downloads.gif admin 08 Oct, 2010 12.83 Kb 1100
215 Lack of vitamin D children - 2009.gif admin 08 Oct, 2010 28.23 Kb 1047
214 Lack of vitamin D strength of evidence - 2009.gif admin 08 Oct, 2010 36.41 Kb 1063