Bioavailability and Safety of Vitamin D3 from Pizza Baked with Fortified Mozzarella Cheese: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 2015, 76(3): 109-116, 10.3148/cjdpr-2015-015, Published on the web 17 August 2015.
Banaz Al-Khalidi MSc,a Winnie Chiu MSc,b Dérick Rousseau PhD,c Reinhold Vieth PhDa,d
aDepartment of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON
bCentre for Hospitality and Culinary Arts, George Brown College, Toronto, ON
cDepartment of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON
dDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON
- Vitamin D fortified food (bread) is similar to supplementation – RCT April 2016
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- 5000 IU of vitamin D in daily bread substantially improved quality of life in nursing home – May 2014
- Vitamin D home fortification- don't wait 100 years for your govt
Purpose: To assess the bioavailability and safety of vitamin D3 from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza.
Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial, 96 apparently healthy, ethnically diverse adults were randomized to consume 200 IU or 28,000 IU vitamin D3 fortified mozzarella cheese with pizza once weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline (week 1) and final (week 10) visits for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other biochemical measures. The primary outcome compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D between groups at 10 weeks. The secondary outcome evaluated the safety of vitamin D dosing protocol as measured by serum and urine calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH).
Results: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased by 5.1 ± 11 nmol/L in the low-dose group (n = 47; P = 0.003), and by 73 ± 22 nmol/L in the high-dose group (n = 49; P < 0.0001). None of the subjects in either group developed any adverse events during the supplementation protocol. Serum PTH significantly decreased in the high-dose group only (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Vitamin D3 is safe and bioavailable from fortified mozzarella cheese baked on pizza.
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