JOURNAL OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER, 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s12029-012-9425-y
Katia Lofano, Mariabeatrice Principi, Maria Principia Scavo, Maria Pricci, Enzo Ierardi and Alfredo Di Leo
Background and Purpose
Interest in the possibility that diet might help to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer dates back to 1970 based on both the large variation in rates of specific cancers in different countries and the impressive changes observed in the incidence of cancer in migrants from low- to high-risk areas. Here, we report the state of art of literature data about this topic.
Three sections have been separately considered: chemoprevention of first tumor onset, chemoprevention of recurrence after surgery, and chemoprevention of polyp recurrence in the course of the follow-up of subjects with elevated risk. A particular attention has been pointed to dietary factors and survival, whose relevance is showing a growing interest.
The relationship between diet and colorectal cancer has been extensively studied about the onset, sometimes with controversial results. Its influence on recurrence and survival has been examined in only few studies.
Literature data are convincing for a protective role on the onset of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions for some foods such as fibers, vitamin A and D, folic acid, calcium, antioxidants, and promising perspectives for some substances such as phyto-estrogens. Less evidence-based data are available on the possibility to avoid the recurrence of the disease or to affect its mortality with dietary habits. Future perspectives will be directed be not only to identify new dietary style able to prevent the onset of neoplastic lesion of the colon but also to realize an effective chemoprevention.