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Vitamin D in European children – no consensus on “adequate” levels – April 2017

Vitamin D in European children—statement from the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP)

European Journal of Pediatrics, pp 1–3, First Online: 12 April 2017
doi:10.1007/s00431-017-2903-2
Zachi Grossman, Adamos Hadjipanayis adamos at paidiatros.com, Tom Stiris, Stefano del Torso, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Arunas Valiulis, Raanan Shamir

See also VitaminDWiki

Infant-Child category starts with

Having a good level of vitamin D cuts in half the amount of:

Need even more IUs of vitamin D to get a good level if;

  • Have little vitamin D: premie, twin, mother did not get much sun access
  • Get little vitamin D: dark skin, little access to sun
  • Vitamin D is consumed faster than normal due to sickness
  • Older (need at least 100 IU/kilogram, far more if obese)
  • Not get any vitamin D from formula (breast fed) or (fortified) milk
    Note – formula does not even provide 400 IU of vitamin D daily

Infants-Children need Vitamin D

  • Sun is great – well known for 1,000’s of years.
    US govt (1934) even said infants should be out in the sun
  • One country recommended 2,000 IU daily for decades – with no known problems
  • As with adults, infants and children can have loading doses and rarely need tests
  • Daily dose appears to be best, but monthly seems OK
  • Vitamin D is typically given to infants in the form of drops
       big difference in taste between brands
       can also use water-soluable form of vitamin D in milk, food, juice,
  • Infants have evolved to get a big boost of vitamin D immediately after birth
    Colostrum has 3X more vitamin D than breast milk - provided the mother has any vitamin D to spare
  • 100 IU per kg of infant July 2011, Poland etc.
    1000 IU per 25 lbs.jpg
    More than 100 IU/kg is probably better

Getting Vitamin D into infants

Many infants reject vitamin D drops, even when put on nipple
I speculate that the rejection is due to one or more of: additives, taste, and oils.
Infants have a hard time digesting oils, 1999  1997   and palm oils W.A. Price 1 2 3
Coconut oil, such as in D-Drops, is digested by infants. 1,   2   3
Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D has NO additves, taste, oil
One capsule of 50,000 Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D could be stirred into monthly formula
   this would result in ~1,600 IUs per day for infant, and higher dose with weight/age/formula consumption

Items in both categories Infant-child and Europe are listed here:

Items in both categories Infant-child and High-Risk are listed here:

Items in both categories Infant-child and Testing are listed here:


Vitamin D is synthesized in human skin upon sun exposure and is also a nutrient. It regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism and is essential for the maintenance of bone health. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy, in order to prevent rickets, is universally accepted. Many human cell types carry vitamin D receptor, this being a drive for conducting studies on the possible association between vitamin D status and other diseases.

Studies have affirmed that a considerable number of healthy European children may be vitamin D deficient, especially in high-risk groups (darker pigmented skin, living in areas with reduced sun exposure and other disorders). However, the definition of deficiency is unclear due to inter assay differences and due to a lack of consensus as to what is an “adequate” 25(OH)D level.

Therefore, there is no justification for routine screening for vitamin D deficiency in healthy children.

An evaluation of vitamin D status is justified in children belonging to high-risk groups. All infants up to 1 year of age should receive an oral supplementation of 400 IU/day of vitamin D. Beyond this age, seasonal variation of sunlight should be taken into account when considering a national policy of supplementation or fortification.

Publisher wants $40 for the PDF

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