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Vitamin D during pregnancy increases infant levels for two months – RCT Nov 2015

Prenatal vitamin D supplementation and infant vitamin D status in Bangladesh.

Public Health Nutr. 2015 Nov 6:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Perumal N 1, Al Mahmud A 2, Baqui AH 2, Roth DE 1.
1 Centre for Global Child Health,The Hospital for Sick Children,686 Bay Street,Toronto,ON,Canada,M5G 0A4.
2 Centre for Child and Adolescent Health,International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research,Bangladesh (icddr,b),Mohakhali,Dhaka,Bangladesh.

VitaminDWiki Summary

During pregnancy 35,000 IU weekly (5,000 IU daily average)

Infant ageVitamin D ngPlacebo ng
< 1 month 32 9
2 months21 16
6 months~31 ~31Formula and
breast fed

See also VitaminDWiki
Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D has the following summary

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/month
200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $3
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
Should have
cofactors
< 750 mg $4


Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

Problem
ReducesEvidence
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
RCT
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial


See also Web


OBJECTIVE:
To determine the effect of prenatal maternal vitamin D supplementation on infant vitamin D status in a tropical region where vitamin D supplementation is not routine.
DESIGN:
A prospective observational follow-up of a randomized trial.
SETTING:
Maternal-child health facility in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N).
SUBJECTS:
Infants born to pregnant women (n 160) randomized to receive 875 µg (35 000 IU) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) per week (VD) or placebo (PL) during the third trimester were followed from birth until 6 months of age (n 115). Infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) was measured at <1, 2, 4 and 6 months of age.
RESULTS:
Mean infant 25(OH)D was higher in the VD v. PL group at <1 month of age (mean (sd): 80 (20) nmol/l v. 22 (18) nmol/l; P<0·001), but the difference was attenuated by 2 months (52 (19) nmol/l v. 40 (23) nmol/l; P=0·05). Groups were similar at 4 months (P=0·40) and 6 months (n 72; P=0·26). In the PL group, mean infant 25(OH)D increased to 78 (95 % CI 67, 88) nmol/l by 6 months of age (n 34). 25(OH)D was higher with infant formula-feeding and higher in summer v. winter.
CONCLUSIONS:
Prenatal third-trimester vitamin D supplementation (875 µg (35 000 IU)/week) significantly ameliorated infant vitamin D status during the neonatal period when the risk of vitamin D deficiency is greatest. Further research is warranted to determine factors that contribute to the rise in 25(OH)D during the first 6 months of life among breast-fed infants in this setting.

PMID: 26541060

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