Clinical Endocrinology, DOI: 10.1111/cen.12751
Aanchal Sablok1,*, Aruna Batra1, Karishma Thariani1, Achla Batra1, Rekha Bharti1, Abha Rani Aggarwal2, B C Kabi3 andHarish Chellani4
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2National Institute of Medical Statistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3Department of Biochemistry, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
4Department of Paediatrics, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
* Corresponding author: Dr Aanchal Sablok, Senior Resident,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi. 110029, India. Email: aanchalsablok54 at gmail.com
|Vitamin D Level||18 ng||32 ng|
|Preterm labor |
or Gestational Diabetes
|44 %||20 %|
|Birth weight||2.4 kg||2.6 kg|
Context: Vitamin D deficiency widely prevalent throughout the world. Pregnant women, neonates and infants form most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency.
Objective: 1) To find prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. 2) To evaluate effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol in improving vitamin D levels in pregnant women and evaluate its correlation with feto-maternal outcome.
Design: Randomized control trial from years 2010-2012.
Setting: Tertiary care centre, Delhi, India.
Participants: 180 pregnant women. Study population divided randomly into 2 groups; Group A: non-intervention (60 women) and Group B: intervention (120 women).
Intervention: The intervention group received supplementation of vitamin D in dosages depending upon 25(OH)-D levels.
Main Outcome measures: Risk of maternal complications like Pre-term labour; pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes associated with Vitamin D deficiency and risk of Low birth weight and poor APGAR score in infants of mothers with Vitamin D deficiency.
Results: Adjusted serum 25(OH)-D concentration was lower in group A as compared to group B (mean 46.11 ± 74.21 nmol/L vs 80 ± 51.53 nmol/L). 44% patients in group A and 20.3% patients in group B developed Pre-term labour/Pre-eclampsia/Gestational Diabetes. New-borns of mothers in group A had lower cord blood levels of 25(OH)-D levels as compared to group B (mean 43.11 ± 81.32 nmol/L vs 56.8 ± 47.52 nmol/L). They also had lower birth weight of mean 2.4 ± 0.38 kg as compared to group B 2.6 ± 0.33 kg.
Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of maternal comorbidities and helps improve neonatal outcomes.
- Monthly 120,000 IU Vitamin D plus daily Calcium was great during pregnancies – RCT Sept 2017
- 35,000 IU vitamin D weekly during 3rd quarter pregnancy – RCT March 2013
- Near the end of pregnancy 50,000 IU vitamin D weekly was great – RCT April 2013
- Pregnant women need at least 40 ng of Vitamin D (Wagner, genes) – Oct 2017
- Pregnancy needs at least 40 ng of vitamin D, achieved by at least 4,000 IU – Hollis Aug 2017
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|Randomized Controlled Trial|
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||Randomized Controlled Trial|