Vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and response to moderate vitamin D3 supplementation: a randomised controlled trial in East African and Finnish women
British Journal of Nutrition Vol 119, Issue 4 28 Feb 2018 , pp. 431-441. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451700397X
Folasade A. Adebayo (a1), Suvi T. Itkonen (a1), Taina Öhman (a1), Essi Skaffari (a1) ...
- Overview Vitamin D Dose-Response
- Reasons for low response to vitamin D
- 10 reasons for poor response to Vitamin D (race, binding protein, etc.) – Nov 2017
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
Overview Dark Skin and Vitamin D contains the following summary
FACT - - People with dark skins have more health problems and higher mortality rate than those with light skins
FACT - - People with dark skins have low levels of vitamin D
FACT - - People with light skins who have low vitamin D have health problems
OBSERVATION - - The health problems of whites with low level of vitamin D are similar to those with dark skins
CONCLUSION - - People with dark skins have more health problems due to low levels of vitamin D
Note: 9% of East African candidates were rejected because their initial vitamin D levels were < 12 ng
Note: No apparent indication of obesity in either group
Note: No apparent indication of use of concealing clothing in the East African Women
Notice for White vs Dark skin women:
- Start at higher level
- Got to a higher level
- Got to higher level months sooner
- 800 IU not much better than 400 IU
Insufficient vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D)<50 nmol/l) is common among immigrants living at the northern latitudes. We investigated ethnic differences in response of S-25(OH)D to vitamin D3 supplementation, through a 5-month randomised controlled trial, in East African and Finnish women in Southern Finland (60°N) from December 2014 to May 2015. Vitamin D intakes (dietary and supplemental) were also examined. Altogether, 191 subjects were screened and 147 women (East Africans n 72, Finns n 75) aged 21–64 years were randomised to receive placebo or 10 or 20 µg of vitamin D3/d. S-25(OH)D concentrations were assessed by liquid chromatography–tandem MS.
At screening, 56 % of East Africans and 9 % of Finns had S-25(OH)D<50 nmol/l. Total vitamin D intake was higher in East Africans than in Finns (24·2 (sd 14·3) v. 15·2 (sd 13·4) µg/d, P<0·001). Baseline mean S-25(OH)D concentrations were higher in Finns (60·5 (sd=16·3) nmol/l) than in East Africans (51·5 (sd 15·4) nmol/l) (P=0·001). In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D), mean S-25(OH)D increased by 8·5 and 10·0 nmol/l with a 10-µg dose and by 10·7 and 17·1 nmol/l with a 20-µg dose for Finns and East Africans, respectively (P>0·05 for differences between ethnic groups).
In conclusion, high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency existed among East African women living in Finland, despite higher vitamin D intake than their Finnish peers. Moderate vitamin D3 supplementation was effective in increasing S-25(OH)D in both groups of women, and no ethnic differences existed in the response to supplementation.