Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake norms and preterm birth rate: a cross-sectional analysis of 184 countries
BMJ Open http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027249
Timothy H Ciesielski1,2,3, Jacquelaine Bartlett1,3, Scott M Williams1,3
Items in both categories Pregnancy and Omega-3 are listed here:
- Infant Problem-Solving Skills Linked to Mother’s DHA Omega-3 Level During Pregnancy – April 2019
- Omega-3 during pregnancy and breastfeeding is recommended – May 2019
- Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019
- Preterm Births - promising preventions – anti-oxidants, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc, etc. – Jan 2019
- Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018
- Omega-3 added during pregnancy helps in many ways – Cochrane Review of RCTs Nov 2018
- Omega-3 helps preconception (in addition to pregnancy) – many studies
- More pregnancies and fewer abortions when Omega-3 was added (cows in this case) July 2018
- PCOS treated by a combination of Vitamin D and Omega-3 – RCT Oct 2018
- Omega-3 – fewer than 5 percent of adult women get the RDA – April 2018
- Omega-3, Vitamin D, Folic acid etc. during pregnancy and subsequent mental illness of child – March 2018
- Supplementation while pregnant and psychotic – 20 percent Omega-3, 6 percent Vitamin D – June 2016
- Importance of Vitamin D and fish rarely mentioned during midwife-led prenatal booking visits – July 2017
- Pre-term birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Asthma reduced 31 percent when Omega-3 taken during pregnancy – RCT Dec 2016
- Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc
- Typical pregnancy is now 39 weeks – Omega-3 and Vitamin D might restore it to full 40 weeks
- Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy reduce early pre-term births (save 1500 USD per child) – Aug 2016
- Rancid Omega-3 increased the odds of newborn mortality by 13 times (rats) – July 2016
- Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015
- Stillbirth rate typically 1 in 200, perhaps only 1 in 800 with Omega-3
- Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012
- Pregnancy and infants healthier with Omega-3 supplementation
- Vitamin D, DHA, Folic, Iodine benefits during pregnancy – July 2012
Background The preponderance of evidence now indicates that elevated long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC omega-3 PUFA) intake is often associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (PTB). This conclusion is based on recent meta-analyses that include several studies that reported null findings. We probed the reasons for this heterogeneity across studies and its implications for PTB prevention using country-level data.
Methods We analysed the relationship between national PTB rates (<37 weeks of gestation) and omega-3 PUFA intake norms from 184 countries for the year 2010. To estimate the total LC omega-3 PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]/docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) that these norms produce we utilised a metric that accounts for
- (1) seafood-based omega-3 intake (EPA/DHA) and
- (2) plant-based omega-3 intake (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA]),
- ~20% of which is converted to EPA/DHA in vivo.
We then assessed the shape of the omega-3–PTB relationship with a penalised spline and conducted linear regression analyses within the linear sections of the relationship.
Results Penalised spline analyses indicated that PTB rates decrease linearly with increasing omega-3 levels up to ~600 mg/day. Income-adjusted linear regression analysis among the countries in this exposure range indicated that the number of PTBs per 100 live births decreases by 1.5 (95% CI 2.8 to 0.3) for each 1 SD increase in omega-3 intake norms (383 mg/day).
Conclusions Taken with prior evidence for a causal association on the individual level, our findings indicate that omega-3 PUFA deficiency may be a widespread contributing factor in PTB risk. Consideration of baseline omega-3 PUFA levels is critical in the design of future interventions.