Journal of Women's Health. Online Ahead of Print: July 23, 2012
Andrea E. Cassidy-Bushrow, Ph.D. acassid1 at hfhs.org, M.P.H.,1 Rosalind M. Peters, Ph.D., R.N., FAAN,2 Dayna A. Johnson, M.P.H., M.S.W., M.S.,1 Jia Li, Ph.D.,1 and D. Sudhaker Rao, MBBS3
1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan.
2 College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.
3 Bone & Mineral Research Laboratory, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Methods: Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD).
Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale;
CES-D?16 equates with criteria for clinical depression.
Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D?16).
Results: Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4?ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHD<20?ng/mL).
Mean CES-D was 15.2±10.7, and 74 (41.6%) women had a CES-D?16, suggestive of clinical depression.
A significant inverse relationship was found between log (25-OHD) and CES-D?16 (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.99, p=0.046).
For every 1-unit increase in log (25-OHD) (corresponding to 2.72?ng/mL increase in 25-OHD), the odds of CES-D?16 decreased by 46%.
Conclusions: African American women with lower VDN exhibit increased depressive symptoms.
Research on vitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.
– – – – – – – – – – –
- Fact: Depresion is associated with low levels of vitamin D
- Fact: Dark skin women have lower vitamin D than those with white skins
- Fact: Pregnancy decreases vitamin D
- 1+2+3 = The direction of the results of this study
- Note: Without supplementation vitamin D levels drop in early pregnancy and remain low for up to a year after birth,
- Depression category listing with many associated searches
- ADHD 3.7 X higher risk if depressed pregnancy (low vitamin D) – Dec 2020
- Depression after childbirth 5 X less likely if good Omega-3 index – April 2019
- Postpartum Depression 3.3 X more likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Vitamin D prevents pregnancy depression (US Prevention Task Force say it cannot be prevented) - Feb 2019
- Depressed black pregnant women should take vitamin D – April 2018
- Magnesium in Healthcare (Rickets, Stones, Pregnancy, Depression, etc.) with level of evidence – Sept 2017
- Perinatal depression decreased 40 percent with just a few weeks of 2,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Aug 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Depression in youths associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – Oct 2014
- Postpartum depression 7X more likely if less than 10 ng of vitamin D – Sept 2014
- Depression after pregnancy and vitamin D – Nov 2013
- Depression and Vitamin D during Pregnancy – Dissertation Aug 2014
- Depression during pregnancy twice as likely if consume little vitamin D – July 2014
- Antidepressants might increase infertility and pregnancy problems – Nov 2012
- Association between season of birth and suicide – perhaps vitamin D – Sept 2012
- Depression 50 percent more likely if low vitamin D in early pregnancy – Aug 2012
- Pregnant blacks 50 pcnt more likely to be depressed if 3 ng less vitamin D – July 2012
- Depressed mothers more likely to have small babies – Aug 2010
- An Exploratory Study of Postpartum Depression and Vitamin D - May 2010
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D
- Overview Pregnancy and Vitamin D
- All items in depression and vitamin D
- Concealing Clothing in Canada: half the level of vitamin D in blood – May 2012
- Concealing clothing resulted in only 8 ng vitamin D – Feb 2011
- Iranian vitamin D levels 13 ng summer, 12 ng winter – June 2011
- Many reasons why vitamin D deficiency has become epidemic
# 2 was indoors, # 16 was clothing as of Oct 2011
- Jordanian women vitamin D – 16 ng if Western Dress – 12 ng otherwise – Aug 2011
- Ultra-orthodox jews also suffer from 10 ng vitamin D levels – Nov 2010 clothing restricts access to the sun
- 70 % of Saudi women were extremely vitamin D deficient, but only 40 % of men – March 2012
- Excessive clothes and being indoors results in very low vitamin D levels – Nov 2011
- Psychosis in dark skinned people 3.5 X higher if low level of vitamin D – May 2012
- Less than 20 ng vitamin D increases depression by 80 % – Dec 2010
- An Exploratory Study of Postpartum Depression and Vitamin D - May 2010Pregnant blacks 50 pcnt more likely to be depressed if 3 ng less vitamin D – July 2012
4422 visitors, last modified 23 Sep, 2014,