JAMA Ophthalmol. Published online April 09, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.0514 Caitlin L. M. Kakigi, BA1; Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH2; Sophia Y. Wang, MD3; Wayne T. Enanoria, PhD, MPH4; Shan C. Lin, MD1
Importance Despite widespread use of calcium supplementation among elderly people, little is known about the association between such consumption and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the United States.
Objective To investigate the association between self-reported supplementary calcium consumption and the prevalence of AMD in a representative US sample.
Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study included 3191 participants 40 years and older in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who were evaluated for the presence or absence of AMD by fundus photography. Participants were interviewed regarding use of dietary supplements and antacids during the 30-day period preceding enrollment. Self-reported supplementary intake of calcium was aggregated and divided into quintiles. Fundus photographs were graded for the presence or absence of AMD. Information regarding demographics, comorbidities, and health-related behaviors was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to determine the odds of an AMD diagnosis among participants in each quintile of self-reported calcium vs participants not self-reporting supplementary calcium consumption after adjusting for confounders.
Interventions Self-reported use of calcium supplements.
Main Outcomes and Measures Presence or absence of AMD by fundus photography.
Results A total of 248 participants (7.8%) were diagnosed with AMD. Mean ages were 67.2 years for those with AMD and 55.8 for those without AMD. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, study participants who self-reported consumption of more than 800 mg/d of supplementary calcium were found to have higher odds of an AMD diagnosis based on fundus photography evaluation compared with those not self-reporting supplementary calcium consumption (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.25-2.75).
The association between self-reported supplementary calcium intake and AMD was stronger in older than younger individuals (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.52-4.54).
A clear dose-response association between the quintiles of self-reported supplementary calcium intake and AMD was not established.
Conclusions and Relevance Self-reported supplementary calcium consumption is associated with increased prevalence of AMD, with the findings suggesting a threshold rather than a dose-response relationship. The stronger association in older individuals may be due to relatively longer duration of calcium supplementation in older individuals.
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.0514
|>800 mg/d||9.4 %||17.7 %|
Adjusted odds ratio for > 800 mg = 1.85
P value = .004 = unlikely to be a result of chance)
- We have said for 5 years that a person should take less than 750 mg of Calcium
- The problem might be eliminated if take Vitamin K2 and Magnesium
- Death by Calcium, book by Thomas Levy – Dec 2013
- Increased Vitamin K2 reduces the problems of excess Calcium – Nov 2013
- Proven yet again – more than 500 mg of Calcium can be a problem – RCT June 2014
- More than 400 mg of Calcium supplements caused cardiovascular deaths in men - Feb 2013
- Healthy bones need Ca, Silicon, Vitamins B, C, D, and K – Dec 2012 not just Calcium
- Hypothesis: increased bone mineral density needs protein, Ca, Mg, Vitamin D and K
- Increasing bone mineral density increases breast cancer by at least 2X – Aug 2012 another problem of too much Calcium
- Vitamin D, K2, Magnesium, etc increase bone density when taking together– Jan 2012
- Calcium Supplements Tied to Higher Risk of Age-Related Vision Disease Scientific American reporting on the study
- Osteoporosis Myth: The Dangers of High Bone Mineral Density Green Med Info Auf 2012
"Bone Mineral Density is NOT imply Bone Strength"
Breast Cancer is 200% to 300% higher if high bone mineral density
- aking Calcium Supplements Causes Brain Lesions Gree Med Info April 2015
"The influence of supplemental Ca use on lesion volume was of a magnitude similar to that of the influence of hypertension"
Amount of lesions was not proportional to amount of Calcium taken - even small amounts caused the problem