Nutrition Research Reviews doi:10.1017/S0954422419000064
Karina Romeu Montenegro1, Vinicius Cruzat1,2, Rodrigo Carlessi1 and Philip Newsholme1
1School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA6102, Australia
2Faculty of Health, Torrens University Australia, Melbourne, VIC 3065, Australia
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Muscle problems are both treated and avoided by Vitamin D – April 2018
Vitamin D supplementation increases strength of lower muscles – Meta-analysis April 2019
Vitamin D supplementation improves muscle strength in healthy adults – meta-analysis of 6 RCT Aug 2014
Vitamin D and the Athlete – a complex problem – June 2019
Vitamin D supplementation increases strength of lower muscles – Meta-analysis April 2019
Vitamin D and muscle – April 2019
Muscle problems are both treated and avoided by Vitamin D – April 2018
Search VitaminDWiki for MUSCLE 5,110 items as of June 2019
The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) occurs 3 times in muscle tissue and 2 times in muscle cell
52 health problems were strongly associated with Vitamin D Receptor as of May 2019
Items in both categories Sport and Vitamin D Receptor are listed here:
- Sarcopenia (muscle loss) is 1.6X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – July 2020
- Reduced muscle function in mice lacking Vitamin D Receptors in muscles – June 2019
- Mechanisms of vitamin D action in skeletal muscle – June 2019
- Weaker hand grip if poor Vitamin D Receptor (15 percent) – Nov 2016
- Intense exercise increases vitamin D reception activation
Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to take vitamin D and/or use UV beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Reduced Concussions
See also: Sports and Vitamin D category
Note: Receptor appears 3 times in tissue and 2 times in cell
Proposed mechanisms of action of vitamin D (VitD) in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. 4E-BP1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1; AKT, serine–threonine kinase; Ca2þ, calcium ions; CREB, cellular transcription factor; c-Src, proto-oncogene c-Src; DAG, diacylglycerol; ELK1, ETS domain-containing protein; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinases; HSP27, heat shock protein 27; IP3, inositol triphosphate; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; OCR, oxygen consumption rate; P38, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases; P70S6K, ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1; PI3K, phosphoinositide-3 kinase; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol biphosphate; PKC, protein kinase C; PLCγ, phospholipase Cγ; Raf-1, proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (also known as c-RAF); RNA poly, RNA polymerase; RXR, retinoid X receptor; SOCE, store-operated calcium entry; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum; VDCC, L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel; VDR, vitamin D receptor; VDRE, vitamin D response elements.
Vitamin D receptor expression and associated function have been reported in various muscle models, including C2C12, L6 cell lines and primary human skeletal muscle cells. It is believed that 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active form of vitamin D, has a direct regulatory role in skeletal muscle function, where it participates in myogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, regulation of protein synthesis and mitochondrial metabolism through activation of various cellular signalling cascades, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway(s). It has also been suggested that 1,25(OH)2D3 and its associated receptor have genomic targets, resulting in regulation of gene expression, as well as non-genomic functions that can alter cellular behaviour through binding and modification of targets not directly associated with transcriptional regulation. The molecular mechanisms of vitamin D signalling, however, have not been fully clarified. Vitamin D inadequacy or deficiency is associated with muscle fibre atrophy, increased risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain, sarcopenia and associated falls, and may also decrease RMR. The main purpose of the present review is to describe the molecular role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle tissue function and metabolism, specifically in relation to proliferation, differentiation and protein synthesis processes. In addition, the present review also includes discussion of possible genomic and non-genomic pathways of vitamin D action.
Mechanisms of vitamin D action in skeletal muscle – June 2019
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