Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, Volume 99, Issue 1, pages 24–44, March 2013
Janet Y. Uriu-Adams 1,
Sarah G. Obican 2,
Carl L. Keen 3,*
1 Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, New York
3 Department of Nutrition and Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California
*Correspondence to: Carl L. Keen, Ph.D., Nutrition Department, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: clkeen at ucdavis.edu
This review was initiated by the Public Affairs Committee (PAC) of the Teratology Society as a result of the March of Dimes/Public Affairs Committee Symposium “Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy and Neonatal Development” presented at the 51st annual meeting of the Teratology Society, 2012.
The essentiality of vitamin D for normal growth and development has been recognized for over 80 years, and vitamin D fortification programs have been in place in the United States for more than 70 years.
Despite the above, vitamin D deficiency continues to be a common finding in certain population groups.
Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested as a potential risk factor for the development of preeclampsia, and vitamin D deficiency during infancy and early childhood is associated with an increased risk for numerous skeletal disorders, as well as immunological and vascular abnormalities.
Vitamin D deficiency can occur through multiple mechanisms including the consumption of diets low in this vitamin and inadequate exposure to environmental ultraviolet B rays.
The potential value of vitamin D supplementation in high-risk pregnancies and during infancy and early childhood is discussed.
Currently, there is vigorous debate concerning what constitutes appropriate vitamin D intakes during early development as exemplified by differing recommendations from the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake report and recent recommendations by the Endocrine Society.
As is discussed, a major issue that needs to be resolved is what key biological endpoint should be used when making vitamin D recommendations for the pregnant woman and her offspring.
- Birth Defects – March of Dimes Global Report (does not even mention Vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D which has the following summary
IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level Cofactors Calcium $*/month 200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10 400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20 2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1 4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
< 750 mg $3 6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
< 750 mg $4