Table of contents
- Long-COVID symptom chart- Sept 2022
- 49+ VitaminDWiki pages have LONG-HAUL or LONG-COVID in the title
- Inflammation and immunity troubles top long-COVID suspect list (many citations) - Feb 4, 2023
- Long COVID Symptom Clusters - Fatigue, Cognitive and Respiratory - Dr. Been Video Jan 2023
- 71% on Long-COVID disability still unable to work 6 months later - Jan 2023
- 2nd COVID infection increases the risk of Long-COVID - 2022
- Metformin might reduce the chance of Long-COVID after COVID by 40% - Jan 2023
- Long-COVID treatment trials include NAC, Guanfacine, and Lithium - Jan 2023
- Long-COVID medical costs average $9,000 in the first 6 months (far more in lost wages) – Dec 2022
- Post-viral symptoms - some might be just in the brain - Dec 9, 2022
- A Long-COVID protocal by David Archibald - Dec 1, 2022
- 2nd COVID infection increased by 3X chance of going to the hospital in next 6 months (US veterans) - Nov 2022
- Long-COVID treatment trial starting Nov 2022
- I’m a physician battling long COVID. I can assure you it’s real - Oct 28, 2022
- Increased use of medical services after test positive for COVID (in Ontario) - Oct 2022
- Long-COVID fought in some individuals by Lumbrokinase, Heparin, or Natto Serra - 2022
- Long COVID may set you back a decade in exercise gains - Oct 13, 2022
- 47% of Covid Patients had NOT Fully Recovered 6 months later - Oct 2022
- Type 1 Diabetes 2.9 x more likely within 30 days of COVID infection - Oct 2022
- Strokes, heart attacks, sudden deaths: Does America understand the long-term risks of catching COVID? - Oct 2022
- A wide spectrum of types, severity, and duration of Long-COVID problems - Oct 2022
- The consensus of 3 long-COVID studies - SARS-CoV-2 in tissue, Epstein virus makes it worse - Oct 2022
- Long-COVID is US: 16 million, of which 4 million are unable to work - Oct 2022
- 42% increased chance of neuro problems with Long-COVID - Dr. Campbell Video Sept 26, 2022
- Long COVID Has Forced a Reckoning for One of Medicine’s Most Neglected Diseases (CFS) - Sept 2022
- 2 X higher rate of Long-COVID in the US (online survey) than in the UK - Sept 2022
- One of Long COVID’s Worst Symptoms Is Also Its Most Misunderstood (brain fog) - Sept 12, 2022
- A person having long-COVID for 400 days was operated on - had virus in his appendix and skin - Sept 2022
- Long-COVID is a $3.5 trillion dollar problem that we know very little about - Sept 2022
- Increased health problems due to Long-COVID - March 2020 - Nov 2021 (published Sept 2022)
- US VA handbook of Long-COVID 33 pages - Aug 2022
- For Some Patients, Long Covid Symptoms Mask Something Else - Aug 2022
- 15 other long-haul diseases: EBV, Polio, mono, 1918 influenza, Zika, Dengue - Aug 2022
- LONG-COVID incidence: was I in 10, now 1 in 20 if an asymptomatic infection - June 2022
- LONG-COVID can last for many months - preventing some people from working - June 2022
- COVID protects itself by changing the activation of > 100 genes - April 2021
- COVID fails to revert the gene activation to normal when it is conquered (Epstein)
- COVID, for example, protects itself by decreasing the activation of the Vitamin D Receptor
- Vitamin D and Vitamin D receptor activators should treat Long-COVID
- Long COVID’s grip will likely tighten as infections continue - Aug 2022
- LONG-COVID has similar symptoms as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Many Chronic Fatigue symptoms are treated by D-Ribose
- Many reports on the web of D-Ribose treating LONG-COVID
- Long-COVID – Emergent Pandemic – Dec 2021
- There have been
12145 visits to this page
- Long COVID stemmed from mild cases of COVID-19 in most people, according to a new multicountry study
- Estimated Global Proportions of Individuals With Persistent Fatigue, Cognitive, and Respiratory Symptom Clusters Following Symptomatic COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021 | Neurology | JAMA | JAMA Network
- I-RECOVER: Post-Vaccine Treatment - FLCCC | Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance
- “It’s a pretty conservative estimate,” said Gaurav Vasisht, executive director and chief executive officer of the insurance fund. “It’s not capturing people who may have gone back to work and didn’t seek medical attention and may still be suffering, so you know, they’re just toughing it out.”
- Based on NY State Insurance Fund
- The Government Accountability Office estimated that long Covid has affected 7.7 million to 23 million people in the United States."
CNBC Dec 9
Millions suffer from long Covid — and it costs them $9,000 a year in healthcare expenses, on average
Two independent studies of long-COVID medical costs; $9,000 and $9,500
We Might Have Long Covid All Wrong - The New Republic
Some post-Covid symptoms may be produced by the brain. Does that make them any less real?
Long article - many viewpoints - covering many diseases in the past 100 years
mentions various supplements, but does not describe how much of each
Glutathione — the most powerful endogenous antioxidant, so the body doesn’t have to expend energy to make it.
Melatonin — antioxidant
Vitamin D — antioxidant, adults could dose at 10,000 IU per day. Inflammation chews through the body’s vitamin D stores.
Vitamin C — antioxidant
Quercetin — zinc ionophore, vitamin D receptor activator, antiviral
CoQ10 — antioxidant
Zinc — antiviral
N-acetyl cysteine — a precursor to glutathione
Selenium — involved in glutathione synthesis
Boron — antiviral
Vitamin B 6 — immune system maintenance
Vitamin B 12 — immune system maintenance
Vitamin B 9 — immune system maintenance
D-ribose — helps produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Antihistamines such famotadine or low-dose naltrexone will reduce inflammation.
Does not appear to have any data
2nd COVID infection increased by 3X chance of going to the hospital in next 6 months (US veterans) - Nov 2022
Acute and post-acute sequelae associated with SARS-CoV-2 reinfection PDF Veterans Administration
See also COVID US deaths: 116,000 fewer if everyone had been taking 50,000 IU Vitamin D – Campbell transcript Nov 2022
- Group 1 will receive 30g of Intravenous Vitamin C twice weekly for 6 weeks, administered by a registered nurse
- Group 2 will receive all the following oral supplements as capsules [Kyolic aged garlic extract (1.2 g) + Fish oil (2g) + Curcumin (500mg) + N-acetylcysteine (600mg) + Vitamin D (5000 IU) + Vitamin C (1g) + Zinc (15mg)] daily for 6 weeks, administered by the principal investigator; adherence will be monitored by the return of unused supplements at the end of the 6-week period.
* Group 3 will continue to receive the nutritional supplement consisting of 35g pineapple powder + 2x3g ginger infused oil per day to be consumed with food at mealtimes as convenient for 6 weeks; adherence monitored by diary.
Click here for details
- "One in 5. It almost seems unimaginable that this is the real number of people who are struggling with long COVID,..."
- "In my case, as an All-American Masters miler with several marathons under my belt, running 5 miles is a walk in the park. But now, I pay for those 5 miles for the rest of the day on the couch or with palpitations, dizziness, and fatigue the following day"
- ""This has made me realize that we cannot wait on an evidence-based approach – which can take decades to develop – while people are suffering."
ICES Study: Long COVID Leads to Considerable Health System Utilization in Ontario, Canada
Compared services utilized by those infected (268,521) to those not infected and had similar comorbidities, etc.
Jan 2020 to April 2021
Increased usage started about 2 months after COVID test-positive
CMAJ 2022 October 17;194:E1368-76. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.220728 PDF
- Cites Use of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing to Evaluate Long COVID-19 Symptoms in Adults - A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - JAMA 2022 https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.36057 FREE PDF
- Cites: Outcomes among confirmed cases and a matched comparison group in the Long-COVID in Scotland study - Oct 2022 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-33415-5 FREE PDF
Personal experience - recovering from about 20 years of lost respiratory capacity - founder of VitaminDWiki
2020: I routinely biked up a 1-mile hill 3 times with 36 lbs attached to my bike
My last vaccination was about 60 years ago
At no time did I have symptoms of COVID infection (Vitamin D level currently 180 ng) - perhaps had asymptomatic COVID
Note: Long-Haul COVID-19 occurred to 1 in 20 who had been asymptomatic (a study of 2 million with COVID-19) – June 2021
2021: I could not get up the 1-mile hill once with only 12 lbs attached to my bike
Strongly felt it was due to reduced inhalation capacity
Had a lung function test and was using Albuterol for about a month
My doctor wanted to prescribe an Albuterol alternative for the rest of my life. I refused.
I purchased and am using a lung exercise device__
Sept 2022: Recovering - after 2 weeks I am now able to bike up the hill twice with 12 lbs
Have ceased using Albuterol
Looking forward to using more weight on my bike and/or going up the hill more times
- Might not have been Long-COVID, but instead a long-term adverse reaction to Sudafed (Pseudoephedrine)
- I have been using (Inhaled Vitamin D) before intense exercise since about 2017
Outcomes among confirmed cases and a matched comparison group in the Long-COVID in Scotland study
Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 5663 (2022) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-33415-5
Claire E. Hastie, David J. Lowe, Andrew McAuley, Andrew J. Winter, Nicholas L. Mills, Corri Black, Janet T. Scott, Catherine A. O’Donnell, David N. Blane, Susan Browne, Tracy R. Ibbotson & Jill P. Pell
Many interesting tables in PDF
With increasing numbers infected by SARS-CoV-2, understanding long-COVID is essential to inform health and social care support. A Scottish population cohort of 33,281 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and 62,957 never-infected individuals were followed-up via 6, 12 and 18-month questionnaires and linkage to hospitalization and death records. Of the 31,486 symptomatic infections,1,856 (6%) had not recovered and 13,350 (42%) only partially. No recovery was associated with hospitalized infection, age, female sex, deprivation, respiratory disease, depression and multimorbidity. Previous symptomatic infection was associated with poorer quality of life, impairment across all daily activities and 24 persistent symptoms including
- breathlessness (OR 3.43, 95% CI 3.29
- chest pain (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.96–2.23), and
- confusion (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.78–3.07).
Asymptomatic infection was not associated with adverse outcomes.
Vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of seven symptoms.
Here we describe the nature of long-COVID and the factors associated with it.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
SARS-CoV-2 & the Incidence of Diabetes 1 in Children Trial Site News
"cohort of 1,849,411 individuals aged younger than 35 years without diabetes, who were followed from March 1, 2020, to Nov. 22, 2021."
Strokes, heart attacks, sudden deaths: Does America understand the long-term risks of catching COVID? - Oct 2022
- "A large international study involving 136 research institutions in 32 countries has documented an increased incidence of ischemic strokes in young patients compared to pre-pandemic levels. More than a third were under the age of 55, and many lacked typical risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure."
- "In a study that included patients from the initial wave of the pandemic, scientists from the University of Florida found that survivors of severe COVID-19 had two-and-a-half times the risk of dying in the year following illness compared to people who were never infected"
The Atlantic Long-COVID problems include
organ damage, profound physical debilitation, poor mental health, acute respiratory distress syndrome, failing hearts, collapsed lungs, failed kidneys, brain hemorrhages, limbs cut off from blood flow, heart disease, stroke, blood clot, diabetes, asthma, and kidney failure, shortness of breath, chest pain, protracted cough, lingering loss of sense of smell, severe fatigue, “internal tremors, ” gastrointestinal problems, palpitations, dizziness, tiny clots to block tiny blood vessels all over the body, Psychosocial strain and suffering, severe depression, crushing fatigue, withering brain fog, reversible cardiovascular deconditioning (can lead to a racing heart rate or faintness when standing)
The consensus of 3 long-COVID studies - SARS-CoV-2 in tissue, Epstein virus makes it worse - Oct 2022
New Ideas Emerge Concerning How to Treat Long COVID Trial Site News
Consensus has emerged on three points:
- In Long COVID, reservoirs of replicating SARS-CoV-2 virus remain in tissue beyond when it detected in blood or mucus.
- IIn Long COVID, whole spike (in addition to S1) is often detected in blood samples, and the level does not seem to abate over time.
- Activation of Epstein-Barre Virus (EBV) latent infection often exacerbates Long COVID.
Desperate long COVID patients turn to unproven alternative therapies MD Edge]
Probiotics and Omega-3 were mentioned as helpful
No discussion of D-Ribose, VDR activators, or vitamin D - see below
- "ME/CFS involves a panoply of debilitating symptoms that affect many organ systems and that get worse with exertion. The Institute of Medicine estimates that it affects 836,000 to 2.5 million people in the U.S. alone, but is so misunderstood and stigmatized that about 90 percent of people who have it have never been diagnosed. "
- "Many cases of long COVID are effectively ME/CFS by another name. The exact number is hard to define, but past studies have shown that 5 to 27 percent of people infected by various pathogens, including Epstein-Barr virus and the original SARS, develop ME/CFS. Even if that proportion is 10 times lower for SARS-CoV-2, the number of Americans with ME/CFS would still have doubled in the past three years."
- "American ME/CFS patients may outnumber the population of 15 individual states, but ME/CFS specialists couldn’t fill a Major League Baseball roster." (26 doctors)
- "The hallmark symptom of ME/CFS—post-exertional malaise, or PEM—means even light physical or mental exertion can trigger major crashes that exacerbate every other symptom. Doctors who are unfamiliar with PEM, including many now running long-COVID clinics, can unwittingly hurt their patients by encouraging them to exercise."
See in VitaminDWiki
Overview Fibromyalgia or Chronic Fatigue and vitamin D
large doses of vitamin D reduced CFS/Fibromyalgia in > 10 studies
((Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and long-haul COVID-19)
US, Mass disabling event - Dr. Campbell video
US data comes from a long online survey (which takes 20 minutes to complete)
UK data - apparently not an online survey
More in Women than men in both US and UK
- "It’s also among the most misunderstood. It wasn’t even included in the list of possible COVID symptoms when the coronavirus pandemic first began. But 20 to 30 percent of patients report brain fog three months after their initial infection, as do 65 to 85 percent of the long-haulers who stay sick for much longer. "
- "At its core, Hellmuth said, it is almost always a disorder of “executive function”—the set of mental abilities that includes focusing attention, holding information in mind, and blocking out distractions."
- "That specific constellation of problems also befalls many people living with HIV, epileptics after seizures, cancer patients experiencing so-called chemo brain, and people with several complex chronic illnesses such as fibromyalgia. It’s part of the diagnostic criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome, or ME/CFS—a condition that Davis and many other long-haulers now have." (many hyperlinks at the website)
If I had brain fog, I would use my computer program which has greatly improved brain plasticity for me for over a decade.
About 1/3 of BrainHQ exercises can be used for free. https://www.brainhq.com/
I would use it for at least 30 minutes a day and would anticipate noticeably reduced fog in less than a week.
Google Search of "brain fog" "brain plasticity" gets 93,000 results Oct 2022
See related in VitaminDWiki
- Off topic: Brain Plasticity (best way to exercise your brain) – Interview Dec 2012
- Dementia risk reduced 29 percent by just 10 hours of computer brain plasticity training – RCT Dec 2017
- Brain scans noticed changes in most elderly after COVID infection – March 2022
- Off topic: Limbic System and Brain can both be retrained (plasticity) – March 2019
A person having long-COVID for 400 days was operated on - had virus in his appendix and skin - Sept 2022
Dr. Been YouTube Video
Nasal and throat tests were negative, Virus set up camp elsewhere in the body
What % of people with long-COVID actually still have COVID?
'No man's land': Long COVID knocks young workers out of the job market ABC News Sept 5
"calculations factor in lost earnings, medical care and lower quality of life."
Note: This is pre-Omicron
Download PNAS PDF
Discusses many possible reasons. including microclotting
- "... long Covid can be easily confused with countless other conditions, including cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, autoimmune diseases like lupus and multiple sclerosis, and cancer."
- "A July paper in Nature that analyzed the medical records of over 2 million patients in the UK found that, while 5.4 percent of those with a previous Covid infection had at least one long Covid symptom recorded in their charts, 4.5 percent without evidence of infection__ also had at least one symptom."
It’s Not Just Long COVID The Atlantic
- Unexplained post-acute infection syndromes - May 2022 PDF
Long-Haul COVID-19 occurred to 1 in 20 who had been asymptomatic (a study of 2 million with COVID-19) – June 2021
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022
COVID Long-Haul prevalence increases with time: 50% at 4 months - meta June 2022
This is a good environment for the Epstein Virus to re-emerage
VitaminDWiki pages with "EPSTEIN in title
This list is automatically updated
30 studies in both categories Virus and Vitamin D Receptor
This list is automatically updated
- COVID kids were more likely to have a poor VDR (4.3 X), than low Vitamin D (2.6 X) – Sept 2022
- Cancers are associated with low vitamin D, poor vaccination response and perhaps poor VDR – July 2022
- COVID 3X more likely if a poor Receptor (cells get less Vitamin D from the blood) – July 2022
- Long-COVID is now the biggest COVID concern - many studies
- COVID death 12X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (less D gets to cells) -several studies
- COVID severity, ICU, and mortality all associated with poor vitamin D receptor (but not D, everyone had low D) -Dec 2021
- Different Vitamin D Receptor problems cause different COVID problems - Dec 2021
- COVID-19 severity associated with 3 vitamin D genes – Oct 2021
- Poor Vitamin D receptor blocked Vitamin D from fighting avian influenza viruses (in mice) – July 2021
- Epstein-Barr is yet another virus that deactivates the Vitamin D receptor (COVID later suspected as well)– 2010
- COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities associated with the type of Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2021
- Enveloped virus infection (RSV, coronavirus, HIV, etc.) 1.5X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Dec 2018
- COVID-19 outpatients getting Quercetin nanoemulsion had excellent outcomes (Q increased Vitamin D in cells) – RCT – June 2021
- A virus that most adults have (Cytomegalovirus) decreases the amount of Vitamin D which gets to the cells – Jan 2017
- COVID virus alters the activation of 100 vitamin D related genes in the lung – April 2021
- Common sense COVID-19 risk reduction - masks, social distancing, vitamin D - Oct 2020
- AI is examining 170,000 potential COVID-19 treatments, Vitamin D is one of only 6 found – Sept 4, 2020
- Vitamin D Receptor activation should reduce ARDS associated with COVID-19 - June 2020
- Dengue viral production decreased 1000X if activate Vitamin D Receptor (in lab) – July 2020
- Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol all increase vitamin D in cells and increase genes which reduce COVID-19 – May 21, 2020
- Quercetin and Vitamin D - Allies Against COVID-19
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hand, foot, and Mouth disease is 14X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2019
- Treating herpes reduced incidence of senile dementia by 10 X (HSV1 reduces VDR by 8X) – 2018
- Severe hand, foot, and mouth virus is 2.9 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – Oct 2018
- Hepatitis B virus reduced by 5X the Vitamin D getting to liver cells in the lab – Oct 2018
- Some enveloped virus are 1.2 X more likely if have a poor Vitamin D Receptor -Aug 2018
- Severe Pertussis is 1.5 times more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2016
- Dengue Fever associated with poor vitamin D receptor – July 2002
- Dengue virus 2X to 4X more likely if vitamin D receptor gene problems
- "The HHS said in its Aug. 4 report that long COVID could keep 1 million people a day out of work, with a loss of $50 billion in annual pay."
- "A study from the University of Norway published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases found 53% of people tested had at least one symptom of thinking problems 13 months after infection with COVID-19."
- "Dr. Vos’s most recent study, which is being peer-reviewed and revised, found that most people with long COVID have symptoms similar to those seen in other autoimmune diseases."
D-Ribose is a natural sugar of the body that help the mitochondria in the cells produce ATP – needed for energy
The founder of VitaminDWiki has used D-Ribose for 20 years to replace the energy lost after intense exercise
He currently buys D-Ribose in bulk on Amazon
D-Ribose successfully treated Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in a clinical trial in 2010 PDF
Other supplements, such as Vitamin D, Probiotics, and Omega-3 also reduce LONG-HAUL symptoms
- Role of mitochondria, oxidative stress and the response to antioxidants in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: A possible approach to SARS-CoV-2 ‘long-haulers’? - March 2021 10.1016/j.cdtm.2020.11.002 FREE PDF
- This Sugar Cured One Woman’s Long Covid Symptoms Dec 2021
The Founder of VitaminDWiki suspects that a heaping teaspoon of D-Ribose taken 4 times daily should result in significant energy restoration in less than a week.
Note: Since D-Ribose only treats a symptom, it may have to be continued for many months
Long COVID a New Derivative in the Chaos of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The Emergent Pandemic?
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(24), 5799; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245799
PDF Table of Contents
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystem illness caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which can manifest with a multitude of symptoms in the setting of end-organ damage, though it is predominantly respiratory. However, various symptoms may remain after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this condition is referred to as “Long COVID” (LC). Patients with LC may develop multi-organ symptom complex that remains 4–12 weeks after the acute phase of illness, with symptoms intermittently persisting over time. The main symptoms are fatigue, post-exertional malaise, cognitive dysfunction, and limitation of functional capacity. Pediatric patients developed the main symptoms of LC like those described in adults, although there may be variable presentations of LC in children. The underlying mechanisms of LC are not clearly known, although they may involve pathophysiological changes generated by virus persistence, immunological alterations secondary to virus–host interaction, tissue damage of inflammatory origin and hyperactivation of coagulation. Risk factors for developing LC would be female sex, more than five early symptoms, early dyspnea, previous psychiatric disorders, and alterations in immunological, inflammatory and coagulation parameters. There is currently no specific treatment for LC, but it could include pharmacological treatments to treat symptoms, supplements to restore nutritional, metabolic, and gut flora balance, and functional treatments for the most disabling symptoms. In summary, this study aims to show the scientific community the current knowledge of LC.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
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Long-COVID is now the biggest COVID concern - many studies
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- Long COVID stemmed from mild cases of COVID-19 in most people, according to a new multicountry study
- There have been