BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth volume 21, Article number: 431 (2021) https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03889-0
Chun Yang, Wu Jing, Sheng Ge & Wenguang Sun
The govt recommends a meger 400 IU of Vitamin D during pregnancy, but it is rarely taken
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
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There is increasing awareness that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women may be associated with several adverse effects for the mother and newborn. The risks for vitamin D deficiency are unclear. This study was to assess vitamin D nutritional status and vitamin D deficiency risk factors among pregnant women in Shanghai in China.
This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Sixth Affiliated People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. A total of 953 healthy pregnant women participated, serological examinations and other variables included serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total blood cholesterol (TCh), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, triglycerides at the first antenatal visit (12–14 weeks) pregnancy parity and age, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, and completed OGTTs test. Associations between vitamin D deficiency and possible predictors (age group, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, and gestational hyperlipemia) were assessed with a multinomial logistic regression analysis. And also used to investigate the effects of 25(OH)D and the other variables on the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus.
The mean vitamin D level of pregnancy was 16 (a range from 11 to 21) ng/ml, and severe vitamin D deficiency was 31.8% (303); vitamin D deficiency was 40.7% (388); vitamin D insufficiency was 25.1% (239); normal vitamin D was 2.4%(23). Vitamin D deficiency risk factors were age over 30, parity over 2, overweight, obese, and hyperlipemia. The increasing level of vitamin D nutritional status in pregnancy is significantly related to reducing gestational diabetes mellitus. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.
It is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Chinese pregnancy in Shanghai. Aging more than 30 years, the parity of more than 2, overweight and obesity, and hyperlipemia are risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus. Public health strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency should focus on those risks to promote health pregnancy of Shanghai in China.