Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Early Life on Children’s Growth and Body Nutrients Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
2021, 13(2), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020524 (registering DOI)
by Kristine Ma 1,Shu Qin Wei 1,2,*OrcID,Wei Guang Bi 1,Hope A. Weiler 3 andShi Wu Wen 4,5,6,*
- Less obese child if supplemented with Vitamin D as an infant– meta-analysis Feb 2021
- Obese children had 2.2 X less response to a single dose of Vitamin D – Oct 2020
- Little weight loss in obese children from very small amount of vitamin D (1200 IU) – RCT April 2020
- Increased weight in children 8X more likely for each unit increase in adenovirus (if ignore Vitamin D) – Nov 2019
- Obesity 3X more likely in US children having low vitamin D – July 2019
- Overweight children are 3.4 X more likely to have low Vitamin D – March 2019
- Indoor pollution is a problem with obese black asthmatic children – May 2018
- Severe Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease treated by Omega-3 – RCT April 2018
- The Convergence of Two Epidemics: Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese School-aged Children – Jan 2018
- Fatty liver disease in children nicely treated by combination of Vitamin D and Omega-3 – RCT Dec 2016
- Omega-3 in infancy reduces Obesity following antibiotic (confirmed in rats, suspected in humans) – Feb 2016
- Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations (5,000 IU) – Feb 2016
- Obese children – 71 percent had low vitamin D– Jan 2016
- Infant risk of obesity increased by 50 percent if low vitamin D during pregnancy – Sept 2015
- Obese children and youths need more vitamin D – Review Feb 2015
- Overweight children associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – 2015, 2018
- Higher vitamin D at birth associated with less diabetes and obesity 35 years later – Jan 2014
- More Hypertension in obese children with low vitamin D, especially at night – Dec 2013
- Very poor follow-thu with vitamin D testing and supplementation of obese children – June 2013
- Obese children gain weight more quickly when have low vitamin D – Oct 2013
- Obese mothers with adequate vitamin D gave birth to low D and fat infants – Jan 2013
- Heavier kids more vitamin D deficient, especially if dark skinned – Pediatrics Dec 2012
- Obese children with celiac disease had lower levels of vitamin D – April 2012
- The more vitamin D the lower the infant BMI – March 2011
- Obama task force told that childhood Obesity linked to Vitamin D Deficiency – Aug 2010
Background: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy or infancy is associated with adverse growth in children. No systematic review has been conducted to summarize available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on growth and body composition in children. Objective: We aim to summarize the available evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and infancy on child growth and body composition.
Method: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during early life on children’s growth and body composition (bone, lean and fat). A literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and infancy on children’s body composition (bone, lean and fat) in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library from inception to 31 December 2020. A Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool was used for quality assessment. The comparison was vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo or standard care. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were conducted. The effects are presented as mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (Cis).
Results: A total of 3960 participants from eleven randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with higher triceps skinfold thickness (mm) (MD 0.33, 95% CI, 0.12, 0.54; I2 = 34%) in neonates. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy was associated with significantly increased length for age z-score in infants at 1 year of age (MD 0.29, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.54; I2 = 0%), and was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) (MD −0.19, 95% CI −0.34, −0.04; I2 = 0%) and body mass index z-score (BMIZ) (MD −0.12, 95% CI −0.21, −0.04; I2 = 0%) in offspring at 3–6 years of age. Vitamin D supplementation during early life was not observed to be associated with children’s bone, lean or fat mass.
Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy or infancy may be associated with reduced adiposity in childhood. Further large clinical trials of the effects of vitamin D supplementation on childhood body composition are warranted.