Low vitamin D status is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jan 2;S1201-9712(20)32600-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.077
Nanyang Liu 1, Jiahui Sun 2, Xiyuan Wang 2, Tingting Zhang 3, Ming Zhao 2, Hao Li 4
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- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections reduced by Vitamin D - overview of 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitminin D – meta-analysis March 2018
As of Feb 24 had: 34 trials, 5 trial results, 14 meta-analyses and reviews, 46 observations, 30 recommendations, 47 associations, 84 speculations, 40 videos see also COVID-19 and Vitamin D: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 COVID-19 risk factors are associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages
Background: Observational studies suggest that the risk and clinical prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to low vitamin D status; however, the data are inconsistent.
Objectives: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between low vitamin D status and COVID-19.
Methods: The systematic search was conducted with PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to September 25, 2020. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to estimate pooled results. Random - or fixed - effect models based on heterogeneity were used for the meta-analysis. Funnel plots and Egger regression tests were used to assess publication bias.
Results: A total of 10 articles with 361, 934 participants were selected for meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled OR in the fixed-effect model showed that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.05). In addition, COVID-19-positive individuals had lower vitamin D levels than those with COVID-19-negative individuals (SMD = -0.37, 95% CI = -0.52 to -0.21). Significant heterogeneity existed in both endpoints. Funnel plots and Egger regression tests revealed significant publication bias.
Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that low vitamin D status may be associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on the clinical severity and prognosis in patients with COVID-19.
Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration no: CRD42020216740.