Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, First published online : 30 June 2016,
Deepti Goswami, Reena Rani, Alpana Saxena, Monika Sethi Arora, Swaraj Batra, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas
Vitamin D levels
(< 8 ng)
|Mother||5.7 ng||7.4 ng||77%|
|Cord||5.9 ng||6.7 ng||88%|
Conclusion: need more vitamin D supplementation when having twins
See also VitaminDWiki
- Twins, no tan, winter, and smoking all associated with low levels of vitamin D during pregnancy – Jan 2013
- Premature birth 2.5X more likely if mother had low vitamin D and was having twins – July 2013
- Having twins takes more vitamin D - May 2011
Twins are born about 5 weeks early
- Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Preterm Birth in Twin Gestations
free ful text online
Preterm birth with singleton pregnancies is reduced by adding more vitamin D
- Preterm birth has become the leading cause of infant mortality (vitamin D not mentioned) – JAMA June 2016
- Preterm birth rate reduced 57 percent by Vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016
- Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012
There is a paucity of information on vitamin D status of women with twin pregnancy and their newborns. This case–control study compared maternal and neonatal vitamin-D status in twin versus singleton pregnancies.
Subjects included 50 women with twin pregnancy delivering at >28 weeks and 50 gestational-age-matched women with singleton pregnancy delivering during the same period. Maternal and neonatal serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D 25(OH)D was compared between the two groups using the independent Student's t-test on log values. Serum albumin-adjusted calcium, inorganic phosphate, and intact parathormone levels were also compared.
Maternal vitamin-D deficiency (VDD; serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) was present in 90% of twin and 88% of singleton pregnancies. The prevalence of neonatal VDD was 89% in twin and 74% in singleton pregnancies (P = 0.03). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was lower in the twin group as compared to the singleton group (14.3 ± 10.47 vs 18.5 ± 12.36 nmol/L; P = 0.02).
Mean serum calcium, intact parathormone, and inorganic phosphate were comparable between the women in the two groups. Maternal and neonatal 25(OH)D showed positive correlation in the two groups (P < 0.001).
Mean cord blood 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the twins than in singleton newborns (14.8 ± 12.63 vs 22.6 ± 16.68 nmol/L; P = 0.002). The difference persisted even after adjustment for birthweights and maternal serum 25(OH)D. Mean serum calcium was significantly lower in the twins.
Twin newborns and their mothers have higher VDD as compared to singleton newborns and their mothers in the VDD population.