Reduction in Bone Loss from 5 to 20 Weeks Postpartum in Adolescents Supplemented with Calcium Plus Vitamin D during Pregnancy Is Not Sustained at 1 Year Postpartum: Follow-up Study of a Randomized Controlled Trial
J Nutr . 2021 Feb 9;nxaa418. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxaa418
Maria Eduarda L Diogenes 1 2, Flávia F Bezerra 1, Carmen M Donangelo 3
Background: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation of pregnant Brazilian adolescents with habitually low calcium intake (∼600 mg/d) reduced bone loss during the first 20 wk postpartum.
Objective: We investigated maternal bone mass changes during the first year postpartum as a follow-up of the clinical trial.
Methods: Pregnant adolescents (14-19 y) received calcium (600 mg/d) plus cholecalciferol (200 IU/d) supplementation (n = 30) or placebo (n = 26) from 26 wk of gestation until parturition. Bone area and bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) at total body, lumbar spine, and hip (total and femoral neck) were assessed by DXA at 3 time points postpartum (5 wk, 20 wk, and 56 wk). Intervention group, time postpartum, and group × time interaction effects were tested by repeated-measures mixed-effects models adjusting for calcium intake, return of menses, breastfeeding practices, and body weight.
Results: Time (P < 0.05) but not group affected several absolute bone measurements. There was a group × time interaction for femoral neck BMD (P = 0.045). Mean ± SE values (g/cm2) at 5 wk, 20 wk, and 56 wk were, respectively, 1.025 ± 0.026, 0.980 ± 0.026, and 1.022 ± 0.027 for the placebo group and 1.057 ± 0.025, 1.030 ± 0.024, and 1.055 ± 0.025 for the supplemented group. An interaction also was observed for percentage change in femoral neck BMD relative to 5 wk (P = 0.049), with a more pronounced decrease in the placebo group (-4.58 ± 0.42%) than in the supplemented group (-3.15% ± 0.42%) at 20 wk (P = 0.019), and no difference between groups at 56 wk (-0.44% ± 0.71% in the placebo and -0.76% ± 0.62% in the supplemented group; P = 0.65).
Conclusions: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation of the adolescent mothers reduces the magnitude of bone loss at the femoral neck from 5 to 20 wk postpartum without an effect on bone changes after 1 y postpartum, indicating that there is no sustained effect of the supplement tested.
Overview Osteoporosis and vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: Bones need Calcium (this has been known for a very long time)
- FACT: Vitamin D improves Calcium bioavailability (3X ?)
- FACT: Should not take > 750 mg of Calcium if taking lots of vitamin D (Calcium becomes too bio-available)
- FACT: Adding vitamin D via Sun, UV, or supplements increased vitamin D in the blood
- FACT: Vitamin D supplements are very low cost
- FACT: Many trials, studies. reviews, and meta-analysis agree: adding vitamin D reduces osteoporosis
- FACT: Toxic level of vitamin D is about 4X higher than the amount needed to reduce osteoporosis
- FACT: Co-factors help build bones.
- FACT: Vitamin D Receptor can restrict Vitamin D from getting to many tissues, such as bones
- It appears that to TREAT Osteoporosis:
- Calcium OR vitamin D is ok
- Calcium + vitamin D is good
- Calcium + vitamin D + other co-factors is great
- Low-cost Vitamin D Receptor activators sometimes may be helpful
- CONCLUSION: To PREVENT many diseases, including Osteoporosis, as well as TREAT Osteoporosis
- Category Osteoporosis has
- Category Bone Health has
Note: Osteoporosis causes bones to become fragile and prone to fracture
Osteoarthritis is a disease where damage occurs to the joints at the end of the bones
Osteoporosis category includes the following
192 items in category - see also Overview Osteoporosis and vitamin D
- Overview Fractures and vitamin D
- Bone - Health
- Search BMD OR Bone Mineral Density 3250 results as of July 2020
- Search VitaminDWiki for OSTEOPENIA 1740 items as of July 2020
11 articles are in both Osteroporosis and Vitamin D Receptor categories 8 articles are in both Osteroporosis and Meta-analysis categoriesGiving vitamin D stopped bone loss, stopping vitamin D let the bone loss continue – RCT – Feb 2021 103 visitors, last modified 28 Feb, 2021,
- Category Bone Health has