|Alcohol||Low Vitamin D (< 40 ng)|
|Miscarriage||4 X increase||yes|
|Preterm birth||yes||2 X increase|
|Low birth weight||yes||yes|
|C- sections||no||4 X increase|
see PDF at bottom
|4 X increase|
|Vaginosis||no||5 X increase|
|Small for Gestational Age||?||5 X increase|
|Childhood Asthma||no?||5 X more|
|Childhood Cognition||Lower IQ||2X more language problems|
|Problem worse in||1st trimester||3rd trimester|
- Pregnancy category listing has
724 items along with related searches
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Alcohol while pregnant lowers the vitamin D levels in Winter and Spring – Jan 2017
- Prenatal VITAMIN D is more important than other prenatal vitamins
- Alcoholic liver disease 8X more likely among alcoholics if very low vitamin D – May 2015
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
- Far More U.S. Children Than Previously Thought May Have Fetal Alcohol Disorders NYT Feb 2018
". . estimated conservatively that fetal alcohol spectrum disorders affect 1.1 to 5 percent of children in the country, up to five times previous estimates"
Evaluated 2,962 children, 222 had FASD, but only 2 had been previously diagnosed, .
2015 - American Academy of Pediatrics - ZERO alcohol during pregnancy
2016 - CDC ZERO alcohol without birth control (since 1/2 of pregnancies are unplanned)
: original JAMA article reported on by NYT doi:10.1001/jama.2017.21896
- Drinking alcohol during pregnancy BabyCenter
- Alcohol and Pregnancy: Is 'A Little Bit' Safe? Web MD
A recent CDC study found that about one in eight pregnant women in the U.S. report drinking at least one alcoholic beverage in the past month.
Although heavy drinking can obviously be harmful, the risks of light and moderate drinking aren’t as clear.
2010 U.K. reported that the 5-year-old children of women who drank up to one to two alcoholic drinks per week or per occasion while pregnant were not at an increased risk of behavioral or cognitive problem
- Alcohol-and-Pregnancy Midwife.org
about 1,3% of pregnant women in the United States reports binge drinking in the past 30 days (having four or more drinks at one time)
- The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children Aug 2013
no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal low to moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and SDQ behavioural scores OR 1.1,
or between binge drinking and SDQ behavioural scores OR 1.2, Full free PDF is online
- Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) CDC
CDC map of women with binge drinking (all women, not just pregnant)
As of 1987, fetal alcohol exposure was the leading known cause of intellectual disability in the Western world. In the United States and Europe, the FAS prevalence rate is estimated to be between 0.2–2 in every 1000 live births. FAS should not be confused with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), a condition which describes a continuum of permanent birth defects caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, which includes FAS, as well as other disorders, and which affects about 1% of live births in the US (i.e., about 10 cases per 1000 live births).
FAS term coined in 1974 Lancet article
Moderate Alcohol Intake during Pregnancy and the Risk of Stillbirth and Death in the First Year of Life 2001
The authors evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of stillbirth and infant death in a cohort of pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital (Aarhus, Denmark) between 1989 and 1996. Prospective information on alcohol intake, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetric risk factors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files, and 24,768 singleton pregnancies were included in the analyses (116 stillbirths, 119 infant deaths). The risk ratio for stillbirth among women who consumed ≥5 drinks/week during pregnancy was 2.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 6.41) as compared with women who consumed <1 drink/week. Adjustment for smoking habits, caffeine intake, age, prepregnancy body mass index, marital status, occupational status, education, parity, and sex of the child did not change the conclusions, nor did restriction of the highest intake group to women who consumed 5–14 drinks/week (risk ratio = 3.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.45, 6.77). The rate of stillbirth due to fetoplacental dysfunction increased across alcohol categories, from 1.37 per 1,000 births for women consuming <1 drink/week to 8.83 per 1,000 births for women consuming ≥5 drinks/week. The increased risk could not be attributed to the effect of alcohol on the risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, or malformations. There was little if any association between alcohol intake and infant death.