Pediatrics. 2014 Feb 10.
Natarajan CK1, Sankar MJ, Agarwal R, Pratap OT, Jain V, Gupta N, Gupta AK, Deorari AK, Paul VK, Sreenivas V.
To compare the effect of 800 vs 400 IU of daily oral vitamin D3 on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) at 40 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm infants of 28 to 34 weeks' gestation.
In this randomized double-blind trial, we allocated eligible infants to receive either 800 or 400 IU of vitamin D3 per day (n = 48 in both groups). Primary outcome was VDD (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <20 ng/mL) at 40 weeks' PMA. Secondary outcomes were VDD, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density at 3 months' corrected age (CA).
Prevalence of VDD in the 800-IU group was significantly lower than in the 400-IU group at 40 weeks (38.1% vs 66.7%; relative risk: 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.88) and at 3 months' CA (12.5% vs 35%; relative risk: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.90). One infant (2.4%) in the 800-IU group had vitamin D excess (100-150 ng/mL). Bone mineral content (mean ± SD: 79.6 ± 16.8 vs 84.7 ± 20.7 g; P = .27) and bone mineral density (0.152 ± 0.019 vs 0.158 ± 0.021 g/cm2; P = .26) were not different between the 2 groups.
Daily supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D reduces the prevalence of VDD at 40 weeks' PMA and at 3 months' CA in preterm infants without showing any improvement in bone mineralization. However, there is a possibility that this dose may occasionally result in vitamin D excess.
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