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Epstein-Barr Virus probably causes Long-COVID, CFS, and MS - many studies


Fact Epstein-Barr Virus was first discovered in 1961
Fact ~90% of adults have evidence of previous EBV infection
Fact Symptoms come and go with Long-Haul, Multiple Sclerosis, amd CFS
Fact Virus cause some cancers
EBV Implicated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, stomach cancer, MS Some Auto-Immune diseases and CFS - see below
Fact Multiple Sclerosis is extinguished by high-dose vitamin D
Possibility High-dose Vitamin D might also fight CFS, Long-Haul
   Vitamin D Receptor activators such as Resveratrol may also be needed

Long-Haul EBV on the web

  • Could the 'Mono' Virus Be Driving Long-Haul COVID? WebMD June 30, 2021
    • "Two-thirds of a group of 30 COVID long-haul patients had high levels of Epstein-Barr antibodies, suggesting that EBV lying dormant in their bodies had been reactivated by their coronavirus infection, researchers reported."
  • Evidence of Epstein Barr Virus Reactivation in Long COVID Patients Dr. Been video 27 minutes Aug 3, 2021
  • Long COVID in Kids: The New Mono? Aug 19, 2021
    • "Mononucleosis was nicknamed the kissing disease for one simple reason: college students, most at risk for developing this infection, presumably spend massive amounts of time sharing germs with their friends."
    • "While most people recover in two weeks with rest and fluids, the virus that causes mono, Epstein Barr (EBV), is also associated with a chronic inflammatory and painful condition called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Also known as Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), this syndrome has itself been compared to Long COVID.4 "
    • "And the list goes on. Through a protein on the virus, EBV has also been identified as a common infectious activator or trigger of several autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and celiac disease.5"
  • Long COVID may be the result of Epstein-Barr virus reactivating in many patients Aug 18, 2021
    • Reporting on the Pathogens study on this page

VitaminDWiki pages containing EPSTEIN or EBV in title (16 as of Oct 2022 )

This list is automatically updated

49+ VitaminDWiki pages have LONG-HAUL or LONG-COVID in the title

VitaminDWiki pages in both categories Virus and Vitamin D Receptor

Many ways to increase Receptor activation and get more vitamin D to cells

Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol,  Omega-3,  MagnesiumZinc,   Quercetin,   non-daily Vit D,  Curcumin, intense exercise,   Ginger,   Essential oils, etc  Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 13 known VDR activators

Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - June 2021

Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060763
by Jeffrey E. Gold 1, jeff_gold at world.org ,Ramazan A. Okyay 2,Warren E. Licht 3 and David J. Hurley 4
1 World Organization, Watkinsville, GA 30677, USA
2 Department of Public Health, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46040, Turkey
3 Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients and, subsequently, to determine if there was an association between occurrence of long COVID symptoms and reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 68 COVID-19 patients recruited from those surveyed. We found the prevalence of long COVID symptoms to be 30.3% (56/185), which included 4 initially asymptomatic COVID-19 patients who later developed long COVID symptoms. Next, we found that 66.7% (20/30) of long COVID subjects versus 10% (2/20) of control subjects in our primary study group were positive for EBV reactivation based on positive titers for EBV early antigen-diffuse (EA-D) IgG or EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM. The difference was significant (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). A similar ratio was observed in a secondary group of 18 subjects 21–90 days after testing positive for COVID-19, indicating reactivation may occur soon after or concurrently with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that many long COVID symptoms may not be a direct result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but may be the result of COVID-19 inflammation-induced EBV reactivation.

Spreadheet data from the study

Zip file

Study was cited by 14 other studies as of Jan 2021

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  • Stress-Induced Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - Sept 2021 PDF
  • SARS-CoV-2 and EBV; the cost of a second mitochondrial “whammy”? - Oct 2021 PDF

Comment on Long-Haul COVID and virus such as EBV - Aug 27, 2021

Preventing The Post-COVID Syndrone (long-haul COVID) Sunil Wimalawansa, Linked-In

COVID-19 significantly impair the immune system, including its regulation. SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons with vitamin D deficiency is subjected to a double whammy.

Postmortem sample indicates that SARS.CoV-2 is present within brain tissues and in endocrine organs. Resultant significant immune dysfunction causes enhance viral replication and dissemination, and autoimmunity, and activating "dormant" microbes. The latter include activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; Infectious mononucleosis) its complications like thrombocytopenic purpura, and intracellular bacteria, like tuberculosis.

The post-Covid syndrome is likely to cause by SARS-CoV-2 and/or EBV, and other dormant viruses. At present, its natural history, duration, and the optimal way to treat it are unknown. Nevertheless, maintaining serum 25(OH)D above 50 ng/mL seem to prevent this syndrome and supplementing vitamin D expedites the recovery following post-COVID syndrome. It is likely due to restoring the robust immune system).

Moreover, the efficacy of vaccines is enhanced with vitamin D adequacy. Therefore, administering a one-time high dose of oral vitamin D (e.g., 200,000 IU), as we have advocated since January 2021, is a sensible measure to enhance the acquired immunity and avoid a third booster dose. Prevention is better than cure.

EBV may cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - 2020

Early Growth Response Gene Upregulation in Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV)-Associated Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
Biomolecules 2020, 10(11), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10111484
by Jonathan Kerr. Department of Microbiology, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital (NNUH), Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY, UK
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

EBV Books

  • Epstein Barr Virus For Beginners: How To Fight The Epstein Barr Virus And Chronic Fatigue Syndrome With The Right Treatment Of EBV - Amazon 2021 $4

"Epstein Barr Virus"and "Vitamin D" - 2,420 studies in Oct 2022

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"Epstein Barr Virus" and COVID - 37,600 studies in Oct 2022

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  • Epstein–Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation in Acute COVID-19 Patients - Aug 2022 PDF
  • Epstein–Barr virus and COVID-19 - May 2022 PDF
  • High incidence of Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human-herpes virus-6 reactivations in critically ill patients with COVID-19 - May 2021 PDF
  • Positive Epstein–Barr virus detection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients - May 2021 PDF
  • Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with acute COVID-19 with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation - Sept 2021 PDF

"Epstein Barr Virus" "long covid" 888 studies as of Oct 2022

Google Scholar

  • Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - June 2021 PDF
  • Impact of Pre-Existing Chronic Viral Infection and Reactivation on the Development of Long COVID - preprint
  • Association between Epstein-Barr-Virus reactivation and development of Long-COVID fatigue - Aug 2022 - PDF

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
18543 Association EB Long-COVID.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 23:46 325.41 Kb 65
18542 EB long-COVID preprint.pdf PDF 2022 admin 02 Oct, 2022 23:45 1.21 Mb 63
18541 High incidece EB COVID.pdf PDF 2022 admin 02 Oct, 2022 23:27 278.57 Kb 79
18540 EB COVID letter.pdf PDF 2022 admin 02 Oct, 2022 23:27 649.85 Kb 60
18539 EB COVID.pdf PDF 2022 admin 02 Oct, 2022 23:18 761.28 Kb 68
16864 Ivermetin Peru data.zip PDF 2021 admin 10 Jan, 2022 18:29 7.16 Mb 149
16731 COVID EBV Sept 2021.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 22:59 1.24 Mb 153
16730 EBV COVID 2021.pdf PDF 2021 admin 11 Dec, 2021 22:53 999.73 Kb 153
16729 EBV CFS.pdf PDF 2020 admin 11 Dec, 2021 18:27 581.42 Kb 162
16728 SARS-CoV-2 and EBV.pdf PDF 2021 admin 11 Dec, 2021 18:19 459.89 Kb 165
16727 EBV stress.pdf PDF 2021 admin 11 Dec, 2021 18:18 2.05 Mb 241
16140 Long COVID EBV_compressed.pdf PDF 2021 admin 26 Aug, 2021 20:52 311.89 Kb 241
16139 LH symptoms EBV.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2021 20:50 47.40 Kb 664
16138 LH EBV.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2021 20:50 51.54 Kb 698