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Epstein-Barr Virus probably causes Long-COVID, CFS, and MS - many studies

Fact Epstein-Barr Virus was first discovered in 1961
Fact ~90% of adults have evidence of previous EBV infection
Fact Symptoms come and go with Long-Haul, Multiple Sclerosis, amd CFS
Fact Virus cause some cancers
EBV Implicated with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, stomach cancer, MS Some Auto-Immune diseases and CFS - see below
Fact Multiple Sclerosis is extinguished by high-dose vitamin D
Possibility High-dose Vitamin D might also fight CFS, Long-Haul
   Vitamin D Receptor activators such as Resveratrol may also be needed

Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - June 2021

Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060763
by Jeffrey E. Gold 1, jeff_gold at world.org , Ramazan A. Okyay 2, Warren E. Licht 3 and David J. Hurley 4
1 World Organization, Watkinsville, GA 30677, USA
2 Department of Public Health, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46040, Turkey
3 Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients and, subsequently, to determine if there was an association between occurrence of long COVID symptoms and reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 68 COVID-19 patients recruited from those surveyed. We found the prevalence of long COVID symptoms to be 30.3% (56/185), which included 4 initially asymptomatic COVID-19 patients who later developed long COVID symptoms. Next, we found that 66.7% (20/30) of long COVID subjects versus 10% (2/20) of control subjects in our primary study group were positive for EBV reactivation based on positive titers for EBV early antigen-diffuse (EA-D) IgG or EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM. The difference was significant (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). A similar ratio was observed in a secondary group of 18 subjects 21–90 days after testing positive for COVID-19, indicating reactivation may occur soon after or concurrently with COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that many long COVID symptoms may not be a direct result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus but may be the result of COVID-19 inflammation-induced EBV reactivation.

Spreadsheet data from the study

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Study was cited by 254 other studies as of Feb 2024

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  • Stress-Induced Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - Sept 2021 PDF
  • SARS-CoV-2 and EBV; the cost of a second mitochondrial “whammy”? - Oct 2021 PDF

Comment on Long-Haul COVID and virus such as EBV - Aug 27, 2021

Preventing The Post-COVID Syndrone (long-haul COVID) Sunil Wimalawansa, Linked-In

COVID-19 significantly impair the immune system, including its regulation. SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons with vitamin D deficiency is subjected to a double whammy.

Postmortem sample indicates that SARS.CoV-2 is present within brain tissues and in endocrine organs. Resultant significant immune dysfunction causes enhance viral replication and dissemination, and autoimmunity, and activating "dormant" microbes. The latter include activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; Infectious mononucleosis) its complications like thrombocytopenic purpura, and intracellular bacteria, like tuberculosis.

The post-Covid syndrome is likely to cause by SARS-CoV-2 and/or EBV, and other dormant viruses. At present, its natural history, duration, and the optimal way to treat it are unknown. Nevertheless, maintaining serum 25(OH)D above 50 ng/mL seem to prevent this syndrome and supplementing vitamin D expedites the recovery following post-COVID syndrome. It is likely due to restoring the robust immune system).

Moreover, the efficacy of vaccines is enhanced with vitamin D adequacy. Therefore, administering a one-time high dose of oral vitamin D (e.g., 200,000 IU), as we have advocated since January 2021, is a sensible measure to enhance the acquired immunity and avoid a third booster dose. Prevention is better than cure.

EBV may cause Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - 2020

Early Growth Response Gene Upregulation in Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV)-Associated Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)
Biomolecules 2020, 10(11), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10111484
by Jonathan Kerr. Department of Microbiology, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital (NNUH), Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY, UK
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

EBV has a protein which is similar to that used to make myelin - Feb 2024

Scientists want to tackle multiple sclerosis by treating the kissing virus Economist

  • "Almost all ms patients show signs of ebv infection, but so do around 95% of healthy adults"
  • "...Harvard University tracked more than 10m American military employees who were given regular blood tests for hiv. During the study, 955 of the soldiers were diagnosed with ms. The scientists then went back and tested the blood samples taken before the soldiers’ diagnoses, for signs of ebv infection. All but one had antibodies for the virus, a rate far higher than would be expected by chance."
  • "A paper published in Nature in 2022 showed that a protein produced by ebv shares a similar structure with a protein in human cells crucial for the production of myelin."

"Epstein Barr Virus"and "Vitamin D" - 3,790 studies in Aug 2023

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"Epstein Barr Virus" and COVID - 16,700 studies in Aug 2023

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  • Epstein–Barr Virus and Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation in Acute COVID-19 Patients - Aug 2022 PDF
  • Epstein–Barr virus and COVID-19 - May 2022 PDF
  • High incidence of Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human-herpes virus-6 reactivations in critically ill patients with COVID-19 - May 2021 PDF
  • Positive Epstein–Barr virus detection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients - May 2021 PDF
  • Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with acute COVID-19 with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation - Sept 2021 PDF

"Epstein Barr Virus" "long covid" 2,940 studies as of Aug 2023

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  • Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation - June 2021 PDF
  • Impact of Pre-Existing Chronic Viral Infection and Reactivation on the Development of Long COVID - preprint
  • Association between Epstein-Barr-Virus reactivation and development of Long-COVID fatigue - Aug 2022 - PDF

Long-Haul EBV on the web

  • Could the 'Mono' Virus Be Driving Long-Haul COVID? WebMD June 30, 2021
    • "Two-thirds of a group of 30 COVID long-haul patients had high levels of Epstein-Barr antibodies, suggesting that EBV lying dormant in their bodies had been reactivated by their coronavirus infection, researchers reported."
  • Evidence of Epstein Barr Virus Reactivation in Long COVID Patients Dr. Been video 27 minutes Aug 3, 2021
  • Long COVID in Kids: The New Mono? Aug 19, 2021
    • "Mononucleosis was nicknamed the kissing disease for one simple reason: college students, most at risk for developing this infection, presumably spend massive amounts of time sharing germs with their friends."
    • "While most people recover in two weeks with rest and fluids, the virus that causes mono, Epstein Barr (EBV), is also associated with a chronic inflammatory and painful condition called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). Also known as Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), this syndrome has itself been compared to Long COVID.4 "
    • "And the list goes on. Through a protein on the virus, EBV has also been identified as a common infectious activator or trigger of several autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and celiac disease.5"
  • Long COVID may be the result of Epstein-Barr virus reactivating in many patients Aug 18, 2021
    • Reporting on the Pathogens study on this page

13+ VitaminDWiki pages contain EPSTEIN or EBV in the title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 15
Title Modified
Vitamin D: Viral infections, Infectious diseases, EBV and MS, Virus and Cancers – Grant March 2024 03 Mar, 2024
Epstein-Barr Virus may be a prerequisite for Multiple Sclerosis - July 2023 21 Dec, 2023
Epstein-Barr Virus probably causes Long-COVID, CFS, and MS - many studies 02 Oct, 2022
Hypothesis: Smoking reduces Vitamin D, which activates EBV, which causes lung cancer – Jan 2022 04 Mar, 2022
Epstein-Barr Virus increases the risk of many health problems – many studies 03 Mar, 2022
Epstein-Barr virus increases risk of Multiple Sclerosis by 32X - Jan 2022 20 Feb, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
Epstein Barr Virus and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 13 Dec, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis etc. strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (and vitamin D) 12 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr is yet another virus that deactivates the Vitamin D receptor (COVID later suspected as well)– 2010 17 Oct, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis risk increased if both Epstein-Bar Virus and low sun (vitamin D) – Aug 2021 26 Aug, 2021
Hypothesis of Autoimmunity which includes Epstein-Barr Virus and Vitamin D Deficiency – 2012 26 Aug, 2021
Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Corona, Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis, RSV) – March 2011 08 Feb, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis risk factors – Vitamin D, parasites, and EBV – 2015 05 Jan, 2016
Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis) – March 2011 04 Oct, 2014

60+ VitaminDWiki pages have LONG-HAUL or LONG-COVID in the title

Items found: 65
Title Modified
Inflammation causes low iron, which triggers long-COVID – March 2024 04 Apr, 2024
Long-COVID 3.1 X more likely if insufficient amounts of Magnesium and Vitamin D – March 2024 24 Mar, 2024
Long-COVID a month shorter if more than 20 ng of Vitamin D - Jan 2024 31 Jan, 2024
Hypothesis: Both Long COVID and Vaccine Injury are caused by Spike Protein, proposed detox – Nov 2023 24 Nov, 2023
Long-COVID: Vitamin D was the only statistically significant factor - Oct 2023 31 Oct, 2023
Long COVID with Neuro-Cognitive symptoms had especially low vitamin D levels – Sept 2023 19 Sep, 2023
The ONLY Solution to Long COVID (Vitamin D) - video and transcript Sept 2023 12 Sep, 2023
Long-COVID can hide in the body for years in scores of locations – Sept 2023 09 Sep, 2023
One in five people with long COVID can no longer work (Doctors in this case) - Sept 2023 02 Sep, 2023
Number of people with long COVID could be vastly underestimated - Aug 2023 01 Sep, 2023
Long-COVID associated with 37 poor genes (no Vitamin D genes) – July 2023 03 Aug, 2023
COVID, Long-COVID and Vitamin D in children - Review April 2023 09 Jul, 2023
Fasting may reduce inflammation and long-COVID - June 2023 11 Jun, 2023
The US believes you have long-COVID if you have more than 12 points (no treatment yet) - May 2023 25 May, 2023
COVID, Long COVID, and Vitamin D – May 2023 06 May, 2023
2nd COVID infection increases the risk of Long-COVID - 2022 22 Jan, 2023
Vitamin D might also help the Long-COVID older adult – Jan 2023 07 Jan, 2023
Long-COVID fatigue reduced by Vitamin C and l-Arginine in one month– RCT Nov 2022 24 Nov, 2022
Adrenal, Long-COVID and Vitamin D - several studies 31 Oct, 2022
Long Covid, Short Magnesium - Chambers April 2022 30 Oct, 2022
Fatigue and other long-haul problems appear to be associated with low Magnesium - Chambers Oct 2022 30 Oct, 2022
Long-COVID symptoms in 10 Percent of women 3 months after infection (22 countries) – Oct 2022 29 Oct, 2022
Long-COVID is now the biggest COVID concern - many studies 16 Oct, 2022
Epstein-Barr Virus probably causes Long-COVID, CFS, and MS - many studies 02 Oct, 2022
Anti-oxidants and Long-Covid (Mg, Glutamate, Butyrate, etc) – Sept 2022 02 Oct, 2022
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and long-haul COVID-19 26 Sep, 2022
Over Two Million Americans Aren’t Working Due to Long-COVID - Aug 2022 27 Aug, 2022
Long-COVID: often had not been hospitalized - May 2022 25 Aug, 2022
COVID virus persists in most body tissues (Long-COVID) - 2022 23 Aug, 2022
Long-COVID in VitaminDWiki 16 Aug, 2022
LONG-COVID may be permanent in 1 in 200 of people infected – July 2022 06 Aug, 2022
Long-Haul more prevalent among seniors - June - 2022 26 Jun, 2022
Long-Haul can now be claimed a work disability in the UK – June 2022 24 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
COVID Spike persists in Long Haul - June 2022 18 Jun, 2022
COVID Long-Haul prevalence increases with time: 50% at 4 months - meta June 2022 17 Jun, 2022
COVID and Magnesium - hypothesis, clinical trials, Long-Haul - Oct 2021 10 Jun, 2022
Mass disabling events: Polio, WWII, HIV, and COVID Long-Haul - June 2022 06 Jun, 2022
1 in 5 Americans who got COVID had Long-Haul for a while - CDC May 2022 27 May, 2022
Long-Haul COVID after 3 months – only 5 percent had even 30 ng of Vitamin D – April 2022 04 May, 2022
Hypothesis: 2 long-haul COVIDs: had mild symptoms and had needed ICU - April 2022 15 Apr, 2022
COVID Long-Haul at 49 weeks: overactive immune system, type O blood - March 2022 07 Apr, 2022
Children have less severe COVID, but just as much long-haul as adults - April 2022 06 Apr, 2022
Dietary Recommendations for COVID Long-Haul – March 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Mild Long-Haul 4.2 X more likely if type O blood - preprint March 16, 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Long-Haul COVID is somewhat less of a problem if vaccinated – Nov 2021 18 Mar, 2022
COVID long-haul: 1 million in US too sick to work, many cannot get compensation - March 2021 09 Mar, 2022
COVID Long-Haul NYT - Feb 2022 19 Feb, 2022
COVID Long-Haul fought by probiotics - Jan 2022 29 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
Some COVID-19 infection become COVID Long-Haul - Nov 2020 15 Dec, 2021
Long-haul after breakthrough COVID – Nov 2021 11 Dec, 2021
Long-haul, VAERS, Ivermectin, vaccines, etc. Drs. Seheult, Patrick: Video with table of contents - Sept 17, 2021 21 Sep, 2021
Your Brain on Covid-19 Long-Haul, Dr. Galland video and transcript - Aug 1, 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 blood tests at Mayo include vitamin D (but no results published) – July 2021 20 Jul, 2021
Most people with Long-Haul COVID-19 have low Vitamin D – July 2021 15 Jul, 2021
‘Long haul’ COVID rehab worse than cancer rehab, CDC – July 2021 13 Jul, 2021
Long-Haul COVID-19 occurred to 1 in 20 who had been asymptomatic (a study of 2 million with COVID-19) – June 2021 15 Jun, 2021
COVID-19 Long haul - excellent graph - systematic review May 26, 2021 26 May, 2021
COVID-19 vaccines look good in the short term, but probably not good for the long term 29 Apr, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 - another hint that Vitamin D should help - Dec 2020 16 Apr, 2021
Probably fewer long-haul COVID-19 problems when rejuvenated immune system (Vitamin D, etc.)– Dec 2020 21 Feb, 2021
Long-haul fatigue, etc. common after viral infections (SARS1,2, MERS, Swine, 1918,...) 21 Feb, 2021
Long-distance truck drivers more likely to get COVID-19 (perhaps UVA)- July 2020 12 Aug, 2020

36 VitaminDWiki pages in both categories Virus and Vitamin D Receptor

Many ways to increase Receptor activation and get more vitamin D to cells

Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol,  Omega-3,  MagnesiumZinc,   Quercetin,   non-daily Vit D,  Curcumin, intense exercise,   Ginger,   Essential oils, etc  Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 13 known VDR activators

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Created by admin. Last Modification: Wednesday February 28, 2024 21:15:13 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 63)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
18543 Association EB Long-COVID.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 325.41 Kb 204
18542 EB long-COVID preprint.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 1.21 Mb 198
18541 High incidece EB COVID.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 278.57 Kb 242
18540 EB COVID letter.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 649.85 Kb 208
18539 EB COVID.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2022 761.28 Kb 244
16864 Ivermetin Peru data.zip admin 10 Jan, 2022 7.16 Mb 281
16731 COVID EBV Sept 2021.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 1.24 Mb 315
16730 EBV COVID 2021.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 999.73 Kb 326
16729 EBV CFS.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 581.42 Kb 301
16728 SARS-CoV-2 and EBV.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 459.89 Kb 324
16727 EBV stress.pdf admin 11 Dec, 2021 2.05 Mb 605
16140 Long COVID EBV_compressed.pdf admin 26 Aug, 2021 311.89 Kb 454
16139 LH symptoms EBV.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2021 47.40 Kb 856
16138 LH EBV.jpg admin 26 Aug, 2021 51.54 Kb 910