J Adolesc Health. 2019 Nov 1. pii: S1054-139X(19)30436-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.08.025.
Patseadou M1, Haller DM2.
- Multiple Sclerosis increasing in teens – at least 2X in 9 years
- Many US kids have less than 40 ng of Vitamin D – 99 out of 100 blacks, 91 out of 100 whites – Jan 2017
- Slow walking speed of youths 14 times more likely if low vitamin D - Dec 2016
- Depression 7X more likely in male youths if low vitamin D - Oct 2014
- Youth category listing has
145 items along with related searches
Practical guidelines help clinicians make their preventive and therapeutic choices and improve care management. Our purpose was to collect and synthesize available recommendations concerning vitamin D in adolescents (aged 10-19 years).
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception to February 5, 2019, for guidance published by different professional associations and governments. We also searched the reference lists of identified recommendations and explored the gray literature using Web search engines. We organized documents by theme: dietary requirements, thresholds, prophylactic supplementation, and treatment of deficiency.
A total of 32 documents were identified. Most of them targeted the general population and not specifically the age group of adolescents. There is a general agreement that adolescents should not have serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations below 25-30 nmol/L to avoid poor bone health. However, there is lack of consensus on the optimal concentration to aim for, levels varying between 25 nmol/L and 150 nmol/L. Adequate nutritional requirements of vitamin D are also subject to debate with values ranging between 200 IU/d and 1,000 IU/d. The upper tolerable intake is estimated at 4,000 IU/d by all study groups. Certain associations recommend routine vitamin D supplementation in adolescents. The recommended daily preventive doses vary between 400 IU and 4,000 IU, depending on season, skin pigmentation, sun exposure, consumption of vitamin D-fortified foods, body mass index, and coexistence of certain medical conditions. In case of deficiency, different therapeutic regimens of oral vitamin D are proposed depending on the presence of illness and/or the baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Duration of the treatment varies between 4 weeks and 3 months. A maintenance dose is generally recommended after treatment.
At present, there is no consensus among the different societies about vitamin D needs during adolescence. Stronger, evidence-based guidance is needed to inform clinical practice.