Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Volume 63, Issue 9, pages 1783–1790, Sept 2015
Maria Vassilaki MD, MPH, PhD1,2, Jeremiah A. Aakre MPH2, Ruth H. Cha MS2, Walter K. Kremers PhD2, Jennifer L. St. Sauver PhD, MPH2,3, Michelle M. Mielke PhD1,2, Yonas E. Geda MD, MSc2,4,5, Mary M. Machulda PhD, LP6, David S. Knopman MD1, Ronald C. Petersen MD, PhD1,2 and Rosebud O. Roberts MB, ChB, MS1,2,*
VitaminDWiki observes that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are more likely if have crhonic diseases associated with low vitamin D. Note: Vitamin D is not mentioned in the study. Quote from the study:
- “ . . specifically, previous research in the MCSA shows that chronic diseases such as
type 2 diabetes mellitus,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
are risk factors for MCI.
Several of these chronic conditions are established risk factors for dementia (e.g.,
- cerebrovascular disease,
- type 2 diabetes mellitus)
and for MCI and were included in multimorbidity in the present study.”
To determine the association between multiple chronic conditions and risk of incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.
Prospective cohort study.
Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Cognitively normal individuals (N = 2,176) enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA).
Participants were randomly selected from the community, evaluated by a physician, and underwent neuropsychometric testing at baseline and at 15-month intervals to assess diagnoses of MCI and dementia. Information on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for chronic conditions in the 5 years before enrollment was electronically captured using the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system. Multimorbidity was defined as having two or more chronic conditions, and the association between multimorbidity and MCI and dementia was examined using Cox proportional hazards models.
Of 2,176 cognitively normal participants (mean age ± standard deviation 78.5 ± 5.2; 50.6% male), 1,884 (86.6%) had multimorbidity. The risk of MCI or dementia was higher in persons with multimorbidity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.82) than in those with one or no chronic condition. The HR was of greater magnitude in persons with four or more conditions (HR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.21–2.13) than in those with two or three conditions (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.76–1.39) and for men with multimorbidity (HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.01–2.31) than for women with multimorbidity (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.83–1.74), compared to those with one or no chronic condition.
In older adults, having multiple chronic conditions is associated with greater risk of MCI and dementia. This is consistent with the hypothesis that multiple etiologies may contribute to MCI and late-life dementia. Preventing chronic diseases may be beneficial in delaying or preventing MCI and dementia.
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- Overview Alzheimer's-Cognition and Vitamin D has the following summary
- FACT: Cognitive decline is 19X more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Dementia is associated with low vitamin D levels.
- FACT: Alzheimer’s 21 % more likely if low vitamin D
- FACT: Alzheimer's Disease is 4X less likely if high vitamin D
- FACT: Every single risk factor listed for Alzheimer's Disease is also a risk factor for low vitamin D levels
- FACT: Elderly cognition gets worse as the elderly vitamin D levels get even lower (while in senior homes)
- OBSERVATION: Reports of increased vitamin D levels result in improved cognition
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s patients 3X more likely to have a malfunctioning vitamin D receptor gene – 2012
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer's Disease has been seen to halt when vitamin D was added.
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s is associated with all 7 of the genes which restrict vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 39 vitamin D and Alz. or Cognition intervention trials as of Sept 2018
- OBSERVATION: 2 Meta-analysis in 2012 agreed that Alzheimer's Disease. associated with low vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: 50X increase in Alzheimer's while decrease in vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Vitamin D reduces Alzheimer’s disease in 11 ways
- OBSERVATION: Alzheimer’s cognition improved by 4,000 IU of vitamin D
- OBSERVATION: Plaque removed in mice by equiv. of 14,000 IU daily
- OBSERVATION: DDT (which decreases Vit D) increases risk of Alzheimer's by up to 3.8X
- FACT: Vitamin D is extremely low cost and has very very few side effects
- CONCLUSION: Everyone concerned about cognitive decline or Alzheimer's Disease should take vitamin D
- PREDICTION: By 2024 Omega-3 and high dose Vitamin D will be found to reverse Alzheimer's in humans
- As of 2018 that combination has worked well with
- Other studies concerning Omega-3 include
- All items in category Cognition and vitamin D
- The End of Alzheimer's - if custom adjust Vitamin D, B-12, Iron, Omega-3, etc.
- Customizing the types of treatment to the individual results in reversing Alzheimer's
Dementia risk significantly increased if have 4 chronic diseases – all associated with low vitamin D – Sept 2015
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- Deficiency of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Dyslipidemia in Indian Subjects 2013
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