Cancers 2013, 5(4), 1439-1455; doi:10.3390/cancers5041439
Trude E. Robsahm 1 trude.eid.robsahm at kreftregisteret.no , Gary G. Schwartz 2 and Steinar Tretli 1
1 The Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo 0304, Norway 2 Departments of Cancer Biology, Urology, and Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
Received: 22 September 2013; in revised form: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 5 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D: Role in Cancer Causation, Progression and Therapy)
Cancer mortality rates vary inversely with geographic latitude and solar ultraviolet-B doses. This relationship may be due to an inhibitory role of vitamin D on cancer development. The relationship between vitamin D and cancer appears to be stronger for studies of cancer mortality than incidence. Because cancer mortality reflects both cancer incidence and survival, the difference may be due to effects of vitamin D on cancer survival. Here we review analytic epidemiologic studies investigating the relation between vitamin D, measured by circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), and cancer survival. A relationship between low 25-OHD levels and poor survival is shown by most of the reviewed studies. This relationship is likely to be causal when viewed in light of most criteria for assessing causality (temporality, strength, exposure-response, biological plausibility and consistency).
A serum level of 25-OHD around 50 nmol/L appears to be a threshold level. Conversely, there are several mechanisms whereby cancer could lower serum levels of 25-OHD. The severity of disease at the time of diagnosis and time of serum sampling are key factors to clarify the temporal aspect of these relationships. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could retard the disease process or prolong survival time would be key evidence, but is difficult to generate. However, recent clinical trial results in prostate cancer support a role for vitamin D in this regard.
(Note: Every single study found higher vitamin D was associated with low cancer rate)
1 Cancer disease abbreviations:
BC: breast cancer; CRC: colorectal cancer; CC: colon cancer; PC: prostate cancer; NSLC: non-small cell lung cancer; LC: lung cancer; NHL: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; CLL: chronic lymphocytic leukemia; HL: Hodgkin's lymphoma; MPN: myeloproliferative neoplasm's; CMM: cutaneous malignant melanoma; GC: gastric cancer; HNC: head & neck cancer;
2 early stage disease,
3 advanced stage disease,
4 time of follow-up; a mean, b median or c range;
5 Adjustment variables: 1 = age; 2 = cancer stage; 3 = nodal stage; 4 = estrogen receptor; 5 = tumor grade/differentiation; 6 = BMI; 7 = ethnicity; 8 = calcium intake; 9 = smoking; 10 = vitamin D intake; 11 = physical activity; 12 = season of blood collection; 13 = tumor size; 14 = diabetes; 15 = sex; 16 = tumor site; 17 = time/period; 18 = baseline performance status; 19 = treatment; 20 = area of residence; 21 = alcohol consumption; 22 = education.
PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- National Cancer Institute noticing Vitamin D - Oct 2013
- Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention – Oct 2013
- Mayo clinic starting Cancer RCT using grossly inadequate 2,000 IU of vitamin D – Sept 2013
- Overview Cancer and vitamin D which has the follow chart