Int J Clin Pract. 2021 Jul 29;e14675. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.14675
Roya Ghasemian 1, Amir Shamshirian 2 3, Keyvan Heydari 3 4, Mohammad Malekan 4, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei 3, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh 5, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani 6 7, Hamed Jafarpour 4, Sajad Razavi Bazaz 6, Arash Rezaei Shahmirzadi 8, Mehrdad Khodabandeh 9, Benyamin Seyfari 10, Alireza Motamedzadeh 11, Ehsan Dadgostar 12, Marzieh Aalinezhad 13, Meghdad Sedaghat 14, Nazanin Razzaghi 8, Bahman Zarandi 15, Anahita Asadi 5, Vahid Yaghoubi Naei 16, Reza Beheshti 5, Amirhossein Hessami 2, Soheil Azizi 17, Ali Reza Mohseni 17 18, Danial Shamshirian 19
- COVID-19 death 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D (24 studies) – 14th meta-analysis Aug 2021
- COVID-19 5X more likely to be severe if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 13th meta-analysis July 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- Low Calcium associated with severe COVID-19 – several studies
- COVID-19 mortality 3X more likely if low vitamin D (999,179 people) – meta-analysis March 29, 2021
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections reduced by Vitamin D - overview of 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- As of Sept 21, 2021, the page had: 34 trials, 6 trial results, 23 meta-analyses and reviews, 63 observations, 35 recommendations, 55 associations, 89 speculations, 48 videos see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccines
Background: Evidence recommends that vitamin D might be a crucial supportive agent for the immune system, mainly in cytokine response regulation against COVID-19. Hence, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to maximize the use of everything that exists about the role of vitamin D in the COVID-19.
Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science up to December 18, 2020. Studies focused on the role of vitamin D in confirmed COVID-19 patients were entered into the systematic review.
Results: Twenty-three studies containing 11901participants entered into the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicated that 41% of COVID-19 patients were suffering from vitamin D deficiency (95% CI, 29%-55%), and in 42% of patients, levels of vitamin D were insufficient (95% CI, 24%-63%). The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 20.3 ng/mL among all COVID-19 patients (95% CI, 12.1-19.8). The odds of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 is 3.3 times higher among individuals with vitamin D deficiency (95% CI, 2.5-4.3). The chance of developing severe COVID-19 is about five times higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (OR: 5.1, 95% CI, 2.6-10.3). There is no significant association between vitamin D status and higher mortality rates (OR: 1.6, 95% CI, 0.5-4.4).
Conclusion: This study found that most of the COVID-19 patients were suffering from vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. Also, there is about three times higher chance of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 among vitamin D deficient individuals and about 5 times higher probability of developing the severe disease in vitamin D deficient patients. Vitamin D deficiency showed no significant association with mortality rates in this population.