Lower maternal serum 25(OH) D in first trimester associated with higher autism risk in Chinese offspring
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Volume 89, October 2016, Pages 98–101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.08.013
Jianzhang Chen a, b, chanjz at 126.com, Kuolin Xin b, Junjie Wei c, Kangli Zhang b, , , Huajun Xiao d
- Vitamin D deficiency was hypothesized to play role in ASD.
- Maternal 25(OH) D in autistic group lower than in typically-developing group
- Maternal 25(OH) D concentrations were associated with risk of developing autism.
- This is an opportunity for prenatal intervention to reduce the risk for autism.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal serum vitamin D status in first trimester and risk of ASD at age 3–7 years in the offspring.
Using a case-control design, 68 children diagnosed with ASD and 68 sex and age matched typically-developing children were included. Archived maternal blood samples from the first trimester of pregnancy (11–13 weeks gestational age) were identified for those participants. Maternal serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH) D], unmetabolized folic acid (FA), vitamin B12, homocysteine (HCY) and High Sensitivity C Reactive protein (CRP) were measured from those samples. We examined the associations between those factors in pregnancy and diagnosis of ASD with logistic regression using SPSS.
Mothers in autistic group had significantly lower maternal serum levels of 25(OH) D than in typically-developing group [19.2(IQR: 15.8–22.9) ng/ml vs. 24.3 (19.3–27.3) ng/ml, P < 0.001], with 55.9% and 29.4% being vitamin D deficient, respectively (P < 0.001). Levels of 25(OH) D increased with decreasing severity of ASD as defined by the CARS score (r = - 0.302, P < 0.001). Maternal first trimester serum levels of 25(OH) D in the lower 3 quartiles (quartile 1, 2, 3) (compared to the highest quartile) was associated with increased odds of ASD diagnosis in offspring [OR (95% CI) Q1: 1.36(0.84–2.58, P = 0.25); Q2: 2.68(1.44–4.29, P = 0.006); Q3:3.99 (2.58–7.12, P < 0.001)].
Lower first trimester maternal serum levels of 25(OH) D were associated with increased risk of developing autism in offspring. If these findings are confirmed, this may present an opportunity for prenatal intervention to reduce the risk for ASD.
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- Autism associated with low vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2016
- Autistic measure 5X more likely if low vitamin D in second trimester – Oct 2012
- Autism rate in siblings reduced 4X by vitamin D: 5,000 IU during pregnancy, 1,000 IU to infants – Feb 2016
- Autism is associated with low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Most Autism Risk factors are associated with low vitamin D - March 2014
- Autism and Vitamin D massive review – latitude, season, migration, VitD levels and intervention – April 2016
- Autism 17 times more likely with excessive Folic Acid and B-12 (now added to bread) – May 2016
- Autism treated by Vitamin D: Dr. Cannell - video June 2013 includes many reasons why he believes Autism is related to Vitamin D
- Both have strong inheritance features – Vitamin D about 60%
- Both have gotten substantially worse in last 30 years
- Vitamin D is known to be involved in brain development
- All autistic children are VitD deficient, but not all children who are deficient are autistic: genes are involved
- When giving vitamin D to cure children of rickets “mental dullness” decreases as well
- Children with genes which give them too much (Williams Syndrome) have to reverse of autism – too sociable
- Mothers having lots of fish (and thus more vitamin D) give birth to kids with less autistic symptoms
- Both associated with weak bones
- Both worse around the age of weaning
- Autism is more common in rich families – more likely to apply sun screen and stay indoors
- Autism increases with drugs which lower levels of vitamin D
- Seizures are common with Autism - Vitamin D has been shown to reduce seizures
- Fewer autistic symptoms (such as sleep problems) during summer: when child gets more vitamin D from the sun
- Both worse with latitude
- Both vary with Ultraviolet light
- Both vary with time of year (more birth of autistics in March in Northern hemisphere)
- 2X more urban autism – less UVB in urban environments
- Both worse with pollution
- Both worse with increased clouds and rain
- Both worse with closely spaced pregnancies
- Autistics have abnormal immune response – similar to that of vitamin D deficiency
- Low levels of vitamin D in mother animals reduces brain function in offspring
- Vitamin deficient rat pups have similar brain abnormalities to that of human autistic children
- Autistic children get less vitamin D in their blood for the same amount of sun exposure
- The 4 males/1 female ratio - Note estrogen increases vitamin D in the brain (testosterone does not)
- Both worse in African Americans (A-A 2-3 increased autism rate)
- Both worse in Dark-skinned immigrants in Europe
- Note: All articles in Autism category