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Asthmatic pregnant women had 30 percent more preterm births if air pollution (vitamin D not mentioned) – March 2016

Preterm birth and air pollution: Critical windows of exposure for women with asthma

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1309
Pauline Mendola, PhD, Maeve Wallace, PhD, Beom Seuk Hwang, PhD, Danping Liu, PhD, Candace Robledo, PhD, Tuija Mӓnnistӧ, MD, PhD, Rajeshwari Sundaram, PhD, Seth Sherman, PhD, Qi Ying, PhD, Katherine L. Grantz, MD, MS


Asthmatics avoid air pollution and thus get less vitamin D

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

Ambient air pollutants may increase preterm birth (PTB) risk, but critical exposure windows are uncertain. The interaction of asthma and pollutant exposure is rarely studied.

We sought to assess the interaction of maternal asthma and air pollutant exposures in relation to PTB risk.

Electronic medical records for 223,502 US deliveries were linked with modified Community Multiscale Air Quality model outputs. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations estimated the odds ratio and 95% CIs for PTB on the basis of the interaction of maternal asthma and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns, ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) per interquartile range. For each gestational week 23 to 36, exposures among women who delivered were compared with those remaining pregnant. Three-month preconception, whole pregnancy, weeks 1 to 28, and the last 6 weeks of gestation averages were also evaluated.

On assessing PTB by gestational week, we found that significant asthma interactions were sporadic before 30 weeks but more common during weeks 34 to 36, with higher risk among mothers with asthma for NOx, CO, and SO2 exposure and an inverse association with O3 in week 34. Odds of PTB were significantly higher among women with asthma for CO and NOx exposure preconception and early in pregnancy. In the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, PTB risk associated with particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns was higher among women with asthma.

Mothers with asthma may experience a higher risk for PTB after exposure to traffic-related pollutants such as CO and NOx, particularly for exposures 3-months preconception and in the early weeks of pregnancy.

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See also web

  • Pollution Tied to Premature Births, Especially in Women With Asthma NYT March 2016
    “Asthmatic women exposed to pollutants in the three months before conception were at a 28 percent higher risk for preterm birth than women without asthma exposed at the same time in the same conditions.”
    Their recommendation appears to be wrong “pregnant women should avoid outdoor activity when pollution levels rise.”