Maternal Supplementation for Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breastfed Infants
Linda L. Haggerty. Breastfeeding Medicine. -
Online Ahead of Print: October 29, 2010
Linda L. Haggerty, MAN, Department of Nursing, St. Catherine University, 2004 Randolph Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105, llhaggerty at mchsi.com
Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants.
However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.
"The article deals with research showing that 6,400 IU D3 is effective and newer literature shows no adverse effects with 10,000 IU daily".
- Overview: Vitamin D: Before, During, and After Pregnancy appears that the answer is 6400 IU as of Oct 2010
- Breast milk resulted in 20 ng of vitamin D for infant if mother had taken 5,000 IU daily – RCT Dec 2013
- Breastfeeding mother getting 6400 IU of Vitamin D is similar to infant getting 400 IU – RCT Sept 2015