Smoking during pregnancy reduces vitamin D levels in a Finnish birth register cohort
Cambridge University Press DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980018003932
A Inkeri Lokki (a1) (a2), Jenni Heikkinen-Eloranta (a3), Hanna Öhman (a4) (a5), Seppo Heinonen (a3) ...
Smoking reduces vitamin D - many studies contains the following
Two pathways are often proposed for how smoking decreases vitamin D:
1) Smoking decreases Calcium. and Vitamin D is used up in replacing the Calcium
2) Smoking injures the body, and vitamin D is used up in repairing the body
It appears that taking Vitamin D while smoking will:
1) Decrease the incidence of the many health problems associated with smoking - even lung cancer
2) Decrease the desire to smoke (perhaps take fewer smoking breaks?)
3) Increase breathing capacity
Opinion: If unable to stop smoking,
or are a previous smoker,
or are getting 2nd hand smoke,
increase Vitamin D and perhaps Omega-3 (which decreases depression, inflammation)
Vitamin D should also help people quit smoking See bottom of page Smoking reduces vitamin D
1) Reduces weight gain associated with quitting smoking
2) Reduces depression associated with quitting smoking
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Vitamin D levels while pregnant in the winter
Maternal vitamin D level in pregnancy may have implications for both the mother and fetus. Deficiency of vitamin D has been linked to several pregnancy complications and fetal skeletal health. Smoking has been associated with reduced serum level of the vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D).
A nested case–control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort, a population-based cohort which includes first-trimester sera from 98 % of pregnancies in Finland since 1987. The selection consisted of women with uncomplicated pregnancies. We studied serum concentration of 25(OH)D in 313 non-smoking and forty-six self-reported smoking pregnant women.
We hypothesize that pregnant smokers may have an increased risk of low 25(OH)D levels especially during winter months.
A control group from an unpublished pregnancy complication study consisting of 359 uncomplicated pregnancies. Individuals who reported that they do not smoke were considered ‘non-smokers’ (n 313) and those who reported continued smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy were considered ‘smokers’ (n 46).
Smokers had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D irrespective of sampling time (P<0·0001). Furthermore, during the low sun-exposure season, only 14 % of smokers met the guideline level of 40 nmol/l for serum 25(OH)D in comparison with 31 % of non-smokers.
Expectant mothers who smoke have an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency during low sun-exposure months in northern regions. Further studies are needed to assess the associated risks for maternal and fetal health as well as possible long-term implications for the infant.