An evaluation of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and bone turnover markers in professional football players and in physically inactive men.
Physiol Res. 2014;63(2):237-43. Epub 2014 Jan 8.
Solarz K1, Kopeć A, Pietraszewska J, Majda F, Słowińska-Lisowska M, Mędraś M.
|Body mass (kg)||0.31*||heavier|
|Body cell mass (kg)||0.48**|
|Total body water (l)||0.41**||more water in body|
|Extracellular water (l)||0.32*||more water outside of cells|
|Intracellular water (l)||0.46**||more water inside of cells|
|Fat free mass (kg)||0.42**||less fat|
|Muscle mass (kg)||0.48**||more muscle|
|Vitamin D intake (yg/d)||0.38**||more D in ==> more D in blood|
|Calcium intake (mg/d)||0.30*|| more D is associated |
with more Calcium too
Table 3. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r) between serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and the anthropometric parameters and between serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and the bone turnover markers.
Vitamin D is synthesised in the skin during exposure to sunlight and its fundamental roles are the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism and bone mineralisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, PTH and bone turnover markers (P1NP, OC, beta-CTx, OC/beta-CTx) and the intake of calcium and vitamin D in Polish Professional Football League (Ekstraklasa) players and in young men with a low level of physical activity. Fifty healthy men aged 19 to 34 years were included in the study. We showed that 25(OH)D3 and P1NP levels and OC/beta-CTx were higher in the group of professional football players than in the group of physically inactive men. The daily vitamin D and calcium intake in the group of professional football players was also higher. We showed a significant relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and body mass, body cell mass, total body water, fat-free mass, muscle mass, vitamin D and calcium intake. Optimum 25(OH)D3 levels were observed in a mere 16.7% of the football players and vitamin D deficiency was observed in the physically inactive men. The level of physical activity, body composition, calcium and vitamin D intake and the duration of exposure to sunlight may significantly affect serum levels of 25(OH)D3.
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- 5,000 IU vitamin D helped UK professional athletes in the winter – Oct 2012
- Many athletes now advised to take daily vitamin D supplements – Aug 2014
- The Big D (an editorial in American Journal of Sports Medicine) – Jan 2014
- Elite outdoor athletes had 52 ng of vitamin D – March 2013
by this definition the Polish soccer players were not elite
- Review of Vitamin D and Physical Performance – May 2013
- Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Reduced Concussions
See also: Sports and Vitamin D category