Vitamin D treats or prevent many causes of presenteeism
Chronic Back Pain relieved by weekly 60,000 IU of vitamin D – Jan 2017
Back pain cured with vitamin D – Book May 2014
100,000 IU of vitamin D monthly decease use of NASIDs by 13 percent if low vitamin D – RCT May 2018
Fibromyalgia treated with Vitamin D (50,000 IU weekly for 3 months) – 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019
Pain reduced when enough vitamin D was given – review March 2015
Migraine headaches cut in half by 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2018
Diabetes treated if given enough vitamin D (example: 50,000 IU weekly) – review of RCT - Jan 2017
Prediabetes reduced by monthly 60,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT May 2015
Lost 19 lbs more if add vitamin D to calorie restriction and walking program– July 2018
Overweight and obese lost 12 lbs with vitamin D in 6 months– RCT May 2015
Vitamin D improves sleep and reduces pain – review of studies - July 2017
Sleeps disorders nicely treated by Vitamin D (50,000 IU twice a month) – RCT May 2017
The Better Sleep Vitamin (Vitamin D) – nice 3 dollar book Feb 2015
Breathing by ever-smokers improved by monthly Vitamin D – RCT 2017
A smoker costs a company 5816 dollars every year – Aug 2013
Vitamin D probably can both prevent Influenza and augment vaccine effectiveness – Aug 2018
Influenza prevented by 40 ng levels or treated with vitamin D hammer (50,000 IU) – June 2015
7X less risk of influenza if Vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng – Oct 2017
pronounce [prez-uh n-tee-iz-uh m]
Fighting most health problems provides little economic benefit to the employer
- Health Problem is too infrequent:
Birth: only once per avg. employee, Vitamin D might save $1,000 per birth, thus save only $25 per 40 year employment time.
Multiple Sclerosis: Vitamin D might save $100,000 per MS, but only 1 event per 1000 employees ==>$100, which averaged over 40 year employment time is < $3.
- Health Problem occurs after retirement, which is no cost to the employer
Table of contents
- Reasons to work while sick
- Decreased productivity: All health problems
- Decreased productivity: Pain
- Decreased productivity: Diabetes
- Decreased productivity Obesity
- Decreased productivity Sleep
- Additional References
Reasons to work while sick
10 Reasons for going to work in while sick, 25% of employees do it each year - 2016
Prevalence, associated factors and reasons for sickness presenteeism: a cross-sectional – nationally representative study of salaried workers in Spain - July 2018
BMJ Open. 2018 Jul 28;8(7):e021212. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021212.
Navarro A1,2, Salas-Nicás S1,2, Moncada S3, Llorens C1,3,4, Molinero-Ruiz E5.
Prevalence = 25% in a year?
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sickness presenteeism (SP), its associated factors and the reasons given for SP episodes, among the overall salaried population and excluding the 'healthy' workers.
DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Salaried population in Spain.
PARTICIPANTS: Data were obtained from the third Spanish Psychosocial Risks Survey (2016), carried out between October and December 2016, n=1615.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported episodes of SP and their reasons.
RESULTS: 23.0% (95% CI 19.2 to 26.8) of the workers exhibit SP, whereas, among those manifesting having had some health problem in the preceding year, the figure was 53.0% (95% CI 46.9 to 59.1). The factors associated with SP when we study all workers are age, seniority, salary structure, working more than 48 hours, the contribution of worker's wage to the total household income and downsizing; factors among the 'unhealthy' workers are working more than 48 hours and not having a contract. The most common reason for SP is 'did not want to burden my colleagues', 45.7% (95% CI 37.3 to 54.4), whereas "'I could not afford it for economic reasons' ranked third, 35.9% (29.4% to 42.9%), and 27.5% (21.3% to 34.6%) of the workers report 'worried about being laid off' as a reason for going to work despite being ill.
The estimated frequency of SP in Spain is lower than certain other countries, such as the Scandinavian countries. The factors associated vary depending on the population analysed (all workers or excluding 'healthy' workers). The reason 'I was worried about being laid off' was much more common than the estimates for Sweden or Norway.
|Why did you go to work even if you thought that|
you should have taken a sick leave?
|Because I did not want to burden my colleagues||45.7 %|
|Because I would have accumulated the job||38.5|
|Because I could not afford it for economic reasons||35.9|
|Because no one else could do my job||35.5|
|Because I did not want to be considered lazy or unproductive||31.6|
|Because I was worried about being laid off||27.5|
|Because I was worried about being subjected to some other kind of retaliation||26.3|
|Because I enjoyed my work||21.4|
|Because I did not want to be considered weak||20.0|
|Because going to work was beneficial for my health||11.8|
Based on recall of events for the past 12 months
10% did not check any of the above reasons
53% had no recollection of coming in while sick in the past 12 months
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Predictors of Presenteeism: Country, stress, health, job satisfaction, etc - 2017
A global, cross cultural study examining the relationship between employee health risk status and work performance metrics
- Survey of 254 multi-national companies of 117,000 employees, 2013- 2016
- "...some regions of residency (i.e. Europe and North American) were related to decreases in presenteeism while others (i.e. Asia and Latin American) were related to increases."
- "Decreased working hours predicted increases in presenteeism with working less than 30 h per week having the highest impact and working 41–50 h per week having the lowest impact on presenteeism"
- __Thus: Presenteeism more likely if work in Asia/Latin America or are stressed__
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Causes of Presenteeism - Jan 2018
The Hidden Costs of Presenteeism: Causes and Solutions Jan 2018
- Dual-earner and "sandwich generation" households - Dual-earner families account for 48% of all married couples, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Without a stay-at-home spouse to care for a sick child, many workers will go to work when they, themselves, are ill in order to save their limited sick days for when their children are sick. Added to the mix are the 25 million American workers who provide informal care for an elderly family member or friend who needs help with basic personal needs and daily activities. Those who care for aging parents as well as their own children are called the "sandwich generation."
- Employer expectations - In today's often "leaner-and-meaner" workplaces, some workers trudge off to work when sick because they fear one or more of the following: appearing less committed to their jobs, receiving disciplinary action, or even losing their jobs. A day or more off can also mean burdening coworkers with job duties, coming back to a heavy backlog of work responsibilities, or missing work deadlines.
- Little or no paid sick days - A 2017 report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics shows that on the average, 68 percent of private industry workers have access to paid sick leave. But the highest percentage of workers who receive paid sick leave fall into management and finance occupations. The average percent of workers in service and construction jobs that get paid sick leave is respectively 46 and 47 percent. As a result, many workers are reporting to work when ill to avoid loss of pay.
- Loyalty and Self-importance - Still others come into work when they are sick because they "don't want to let the team down," think no one else can do their job, or that the business will suffer if they aren't there.
Decreased productivity: All health problems
Presenteeism results in 96 hours/year of lost productivity in Japan - May 2018
14 hour/year neck/shoulder
Presenteeism results in 96 hours/year of lost productivity in Japan, and Medical and Pharmaceutical Expenses in Japanese Employers.
J Occup Environ Med. 2018 May;60(5):e273-e280. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001291.
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to examine a detailed breakdown of costs (absenteeism, presenteeism, and medical/pharmaceutical expenses), of the employees in four pharmaceutical companies in Japan.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Absenteeism and presenteeism were measured by a self-administered questionnaire for workers, and their costs were estimated using the human capital approach. Presenteeism was evaluated by the degree affected quality and quantity of work. Medical and pharmaceutical expenses were obtained by insurance claims.
RESULTS: The monetary value due to absenteeism was $520 per person per year (11%), that of presenteeism was $3055 (64%), and medical/pharmaceutical expenses were $1165 (25%). Two of the highest total cost burdens from chronic illness were related to mental (behavioral) health conditions and musculoskeletal disorders.
CONCLUSION: A total cost approach can help employers set priorities for occupational health, safety, and population health management initiatives.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Payroll cost per hour $31.15
CONCLUSION: The monetary value per person per year due to
|absenteeism was $520||(11%)|
|presenteeism was $3055||(64%)|
|medical/pharmaceutical expenses were $1165||(25%)|
|outpatient pharmaceutical expenses of $357||(8%|
|inpatient medical and pharmaceutical expenses of $201||(4%)|
It is notable that the ratio of health-related productivity costs (absenteeism and presenteeism) to medical/pharmaceutical costs is
3 to 1 in this study of employers/employees in Japan and is similar to the 2.3 to 1 ratio revealed in the past study of U.S. employers/employees.
4 days a year lost due to presenteeism (many industries) - 2016
Measuring and recovering productivity in the workplace
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Stress and Lifestyle risks are the main presenteeism cost drivers
Decreased productivity: Pain
Tension Headaches 2 days/year increase in presenteeism for average employee July 2018
Anxiety and the severity of Tension-Type Headache mediate the relation between headache presenteeism and workers' productivity
PLoS One. 2018 Jul 19;13(7):e0201189. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201189. eCollection 2018.
Monzani L1,2, Zurriaga R2, Espí López GV3.
1 Ivey Business School at Western University, London, Canada.
2 U.Research Institute of Human Resources Psychology, Organizational Development and Quality of Work Life (IDOCAL), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
3 Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
The primary objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms and conditions whereby Tension-Type Headache (TTH) presenteeism relates to health-related loss of productivity as a result of both reduced physical and mental health. To this end, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to conduct a secondary data analysis of a randomized clinical trial involving 78 Tension-type Headache (TTH) patients. The results showed that TTH presenteeism did not directly relate to health-related loss of productivity, either due to physical, or mental health problems. However, through anxiety-state, TTH presenteeism decreased patients' productivity, as consequence of reduced physical and mental health. Moreover, by increasing the severity of the Tension-Type Headache, TTH presenteeism indirectly decreased patients' productivity as consequence of reduced physical health (but not mental health).
Finally, our results show that such indirect effects only occur when the cause of TTH is non-mechanical (e.g., hormonal causes, etc.). Our work provides an integrative model that can inform organizational behaviorists and health professionals (e.g., physiotherapists). Implications for organizational health are discussed.
For those withTension Headaches (from PDF)
8.6 days/month reduced performance - mean performance of 67% out of 100% ==> 3 days/ month
VitaminDWiki guess of presenteeism due to tension headaches for average employee: 2 days/year
3 days/month * 12 months/year * 15% of employees get headaches * 30% of the year = 2 days/year
Note: This study does not consider migraine headache or cluster headaches (which are treated/prevented by Vitamin D and Magnesium)
- Migraine headache 5X less likely if optimal level of vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Migraine headaches cut in half by 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2018
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
77% had back pain associated with presenteeism in the previous month - June 2018
Association between presenteeism and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults with chronic lower back pain: a retrospective observational study.
BMJ Open. 2018 Jun 27;8(6):e021160. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021160.
Tsuji T1, Matsudaira K2, Sato H1, Vietri J3, Jaffe DH4.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between presenteeism and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Japanese adults with chronic lower back pain (CLBP).
DESIGN: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Data were collected via a self-administered online survey of the Japanese adult general population.
PARTICIPANTS: The present study used 2014 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) data (n=30 000). Specifically, data were included from NHWS respondents who self-reported being employed in the past week and having experienced LBP in the past month, with these symptoms lasting for at least 3 months (n=239). 84 (35.1%) participants in this study were female.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:
Presenteeism and HRQoL were measured using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-General Health (categorical (none: 0%, low: 10%-20%, high: ≥30%) and continuous) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, respectively. Covariates included patient demographics, health characteristics, pain characteristics and depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire).
Presenteeism was reported by 77.4% of respondents. High (vs no) presenteeism related to more severe pain in the prior week (4.9±2.2 vs 3.6±2.1, p=0.001) and currently (5.1±2.1 vs 3.9±3.9, p=0.007), more pain sites (1.9±1.6 vs 1.1±1.4, p=0.004) and greater depression severity (7.5±6.5 vs 3.6±3.6, p<0.001). Adjusting for covariates, high (vs no) presenteeism related to lower mental and physical HRQoL. For low versus no presenteeism, significant HRQoL differences were observed in general health (43.0, 95% CI 40.3 to 45.6 vs 46.9, 95% CI 43.9 to 49.8, p=0.015).
Most respondents experienced presenteeism. Those with high or low presenteeism had poorer HRQoL than respondents with no presenteeism. Monitoring presenteeism rates may help identify workers with an unmet need for better CLBP-related pain management.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
72% of nurses had presenteeism due to low back pain - 2018
Presenteeism and musculoskeletal symptoms among nursing professionals.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2018;26:e3006. doi: 10.1590/1518-8345.2185.3006. Epub 2018 May 7.
Santos HECD1, Marziale MHP1, Felli VEA2.
OBJECTIVE:to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in two stages (before and after six months of the first stage) and its association with presenteeism among nursing professionals.
longitudinal study with quantitative data conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital with 211 nursing professionals. The instruments used for data collection were: Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability - CUPID Questionnaire, used to identify the musculoskeletal symptoms and the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, used to verify presenteeism. The instruments were validated for Brazilian Portuguese. The study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS:158 (74.9%) professionals experienced presenteeism and 151 (71.6%) reported low back pain as musculoskeletal symptom. Professionals with low back pain had lower scores on the presenteeism scale and shoulder pain was related to loss of concentration during work.
presenteeism lead to a reduction in work performance and was manifested in the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms. In addition, shoulder pain caused loss of concentration at work.
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Decreased productivity: Diabetes
Diabetics = $1700/year in presenteeism costs - Oct 2018
Economic Costs Attributable to Diabetes in Each U.S. State – Oct 2018
Diabetes Care. 2018 Oct 10. pii: dc181179. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1179. [Epub ahead of print]
Shrestha SS1, Honeycutt AA2, Yang W3, Zhang P4, Khavjou OA2, Poehler DC2, Neuwahl SJ2, Hoerger TJ2.
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA gqm2 at cdc.gov.
2 RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.
3 The Lewin Group, Washington, DC.
4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate direct medical and indirect costs attributable to diabetes in each U.S. state in total and per person with diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
We used an attributable fraction approach to estimate direct medical costs using data from the 2013 State Health Expenditure Accounts, 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' 2013-2014 Minimum Data Set. We used a human capital approach to estimate indirect costs measured by lost productivity from morbidity (absenteeism, presenteeism, lost household productivity, and inability to work) and premature mortality, using the 2008-2013 National Health Interview Survey, 2013 daily housework value data, 2013 mortality data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research, and mean wages from the 2014 Bureau of Labor Statistics. Costs were adjusted to 2017 U.S. dollars.
The estimated median state economic cost was $5.9 billion, ranging from $694 million to $55.5 billion, in total and $18,248, ranging from $15,418 to $30,915, per person with diabetes. The corresponding estimates for direct medical costs were $2.8 billion (range: $0.3-22.9) and $8,544 (range: $6,591-12,953) and for indirect costs were $3.0 billion (range: $0.4-32.6) and $9,672 (range: $7,133-17,962). In general, the estimated state median indirect costs resulting from morbidity were larger than costs from mortality both in total and per person with diabetes.
Economic costs attributable to diabetes were large and varied widely across states. Our comprehensive state-specific estimates provide essential information needed by state policymakers to monitor the economic burden of the disease and to better plan and evaluate interventions for preventing type 2 diabetes and managing diabetes in their states.
Presenteeism average cost per person with Diabetes $1,732 (2017 dollars)
PDF is available free at Sci-Hub 10.2337/dc18-1179
Decreased productivity Obesity
The annual cost of an obese employee in due to Presenteeism: ~$1,000
Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity: a systematic review of indirect costs - Health economics, - Aug 2017 BMJ
Andrea Goettler1, Anna Grosse1, Diana Sonntag1,2
Objective The increasingly high levels of overweight and obesity among the workforce are accompanied by a hidden cost burden due to losses in productivity. This study reviews the extent of indirect cost of overweight and obesity.
Methods A systematic search was conducted in eight electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection, PsychInfo, Cinahl, EconLit and ClinicalTrial.gov). Additional studies were added from reference lists of original studies and reviews. Studies were eligible if they were published between January 2000 and June 2017 and included monetary estimates of indirect costs of overweight and obesity. The authors reviewed studies independently and assessed their quality.
Results Of the 3626 search results, 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed substantial costs due to lost productivity among workers with obesity. Especially absenteeism and presenteeism contribute to high indirect costs. However, the methodologies and results vary greatly, especially regarding the cost of overweight, which was even associated with lower indirect costs than normal weight in three studies.
Conclusion The evidence predominantly confirms substantial short-term and long-term indirect costs of overweight and obesity in the absence of effective customised prevention programmes and thus demonstrates the extent of the burden of obesity beyond the healthcare sector.
From PDF: Presenteeism
Nine studies included the effect of reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) due to overweight or obesity, which was assessed by using an employee survey. 31-33 38 41 44 46 48 51 While costs due to presenteeism among individuals with overweight ranged between -$611 31 and $1669, 33 costs among individuals with obesity were between $1146 and $4175. 31 Surprisingly, in Peake’s study, the cost of presenteeism among employees with overweight ($474) was lower than for individuals with normal weight ($695).35 Similarly, Finkelstein et al estimated lower costs among men with overweight compared with men with normal weight.31 The excess cost of obesity ranged from $429 to $4175 for men and from $927 to $3341 for women.31
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Decreased productivity Sleep
Poor sleep increases presenteeism by 50 hours per year - Aug 2019
The economic cost of inadequate sleep
Sleep. 2018 Aug 1;41(8). doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsy083.
Hillman D1,2, Mitchell S3, Streatfeild J3, Burns C3, Bruck D4, Pezzullo L3.
1vCentre for Sleep Science, School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
2 Department of Pulmonary Physiology and Sleep Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia.
3 Health Economics and Social Policy Team, Deloitte Access Economics, Canberra, Australia.
4 School of Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To estimate the economic cost (financial and nonfinancial) of inadequate sleep in Australia for the 2016-2017 financial year and relate this to likely costs in similar economies.
METHODS: Analysis was undertaken using prevalence, financial, and nonfinancial cost data derived from national surveys and databases. Costs considered included the following: (1) financial costs associated with health care, informal care provided outside healthcare sector, productivity losses, nonmedical work and vehicle accident costs, deadweight loss through inefficiencies relating to lost taxation revenue and welfare payments; and (2) nonfinancial costs of loss of well-being. They were expressed in US dollars ($).
RESULTS: The estimated overall cost of inadequate sleep in Australia in 2016-2017 (population: 24.8 million) was $45.21 billion. The financial cost component was $17.88 billion, comprised of as follows: direct health costs of $160 million for sleep disorders and $1.08 billion for associated conditions; productivity losses of $12.19 billion ($5.22 billion reduced employment, $0.61 billion premature death, $1.73 billion absenteeism, and $4.63 billion presenteeism); nonmedical accident costs of $2.48 billion; informal care costs of $0.41 billion; and deadweight loss of $1.56 billion. The nonfinancial cost of reduced well-being was $27.33 billion.
CONCLUSIONS: The financial and nonfinancial costs associated with inadequate sleep are substantial. The estimated total financial cost of $17.88 billion represents 1.55 percent of Australian gross domestic product. The estimated nonfinancial cost of $27.33 billion represents 4.6 percent of the total Australian burden of disease for the year. These costs warrant substantial investment in preventive health measures to address the issue through education and regulation.
Table 2. Prevalences of the various categories of inadequate sleep
|Prevalence of sleep disorders (insomnia, OSA, RLS)||22.4%|
|Prevalence of EDS||19.1%|
|Estimated prevalence of EDS-SD||5.8%|
|Estimated prevalence of EDS-Other||13.3%|
|Estimated prevalence of Insufficient Sleep (without EDS)||20.7%|
|Total prevalence of inadequate sleep||39.8%|
EDS = Excessive daytime sleepiness; SD = sleep disorders; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
From PDF - poor sleep increased presenteesim by 3% (varies with the type of sleep problem: COPD, Insomnia, lack of sleep)
- Cost Savings with Vitamin D category listing has
Annual family deductable increased 3X - there can be substantial cost savings to a family supplementing with Vitamin D
- Out-of-Pocket health care costs and employer Health Insurance - 2017
- Half of the people in the US pay 1 thousand dollars annually to get medical treatment (deductibles) – May 2018
- Many studies show that quickly restoring Vitamin D levels helps - even if after the trama and/or surgery
- Higher vitamin D might result in higher productivity – 2017
- A Health Insurance company is giving free Vitamin D to members who are deficient – Aug 2018
- Employer alliance is trying to reduce the cost of health care – Aug 2017
- Increasing the vitamin D level of all Canadians to 40 ng would save 6 to 18 billion dollars a year – Grant Nov 2016
- Health Management of Workers with Presenteeism is a New Challenge in Occupational Health - 2018
- The Price Of Presenteeism Forbes April 2018
- "A year-long telephone survey of 29,000 working adults dubbed the “American Productivity Audit” calculated the cost of presenteeism in the U.S. to be more than $150 billion a year. "
- "Most studies confirm that presenteeism is far more costly than illness-related absenteeism or disability."
- Presenteeism: At Work—But Out of It Harvard Business Review 2004
- "So research on presenteeism focuses on such chronic or episodic ailments as seasonal allergies, asthma, migraines and other kinds of headaches, back pain, arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders, and depression"
- "Illness affects both the quantity of work (people might work more slowly than usual, for instance, or have to repeat tasks) and the quality (they might make more—or more serious—mistakes). "
- Working with influenza-like illness: Presenteeism among US health care personnel during the 2014-2015 influenza season - Nov 2017
- doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2017.04.008 __More than 40% of Health Care Personel work with influenza like illnesses still go to work__
- Economic impact of workplace productivity losses due to allergic rhinitis compared with select medical conditions in the United States from an employer perspective = Jan 2007, DOI: 10.1185/030079906X112552,
- A study of over 8,000 US employees identified that allergic rhinitis was an extremely common cause of lost productivity, with 55% of employees reporting symptoms for an average of 52.5 days, and reporting that they were “unproductive” for 2.3 hours per workday when suffering from those symptoms. (15 days = 52.5 X 2.3 hr/8hr/day)
- Factors Associated with Presenteeism at Work in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – Oct 2018
J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Sep 24. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001446
- The Presenteeism Scale as a measure of productivity loss – Sept 2018, doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqy124.
- A Preliminary Investigation of Health and Work-Environment Factors on Presenteeism in the Workplace – Oct 2018
J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Oct 11. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001480.
- Presenteeism Wikipedia
- "Presenteeism or working while sick can cause productivity loss, poor health, exhaustion and workplace epidemics."
- "Certain occupations such as welfare and teaching are more prone to presenteeism. Doctors may attend work while sick due to feelings of being irreplaceable. Jobs with large workloads are associated with presenteeism. People whose self-esteem is based on performance, as well as workaholics, typically have high levels of presenteeism."
- " A 2012 study ... showed that workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% less likely overall to suffer nonfatal injuries than workers without access to paid sick leave"
- "In a 2014 survey ... over 80% of respondents stated that they had become ill as a result of an infection contracted in the workplace"
- Presenteeism Costs Business 10 Times More than Absenteeism March 2016 = 57.5 days/year
- PRESENTEEISM is a new and rapidly growing topic.
142 PubMed papers in first 10 months of 2018
The word Presenteeism use in books:
mainly 1940's and after 1995
Book on wellness and productivity
Move More, Save More: Guidelines for Boosting Morale, Profits and Retention with Corporate Wellness
Free KindleUnlimited 60 page book
- “An employee with a serious or chronic condition (diabetes, lung disease, heart disease, cancer, etc.) misses 72 days annually, and often functions at diminished capacity when present.”
- “Soft costs such as absenteeism and reduced productivity from presenteeism are estimated at four to seven times the amount employers pay in health insurance premiums and workers’ compensation premiums combined!
- “According to a recent MetLife survey, more than 57% of large employers (500 or more employees) and 16% of small employers offer some form of wellness program. These programs generally include smoking cessation and weight loss assistance, and 80% of these employers also provide financial incentives, such as reduction in the employee’s contribution to health insurance premiums.”
- Stress reduction is popular
- “Employee buy-in and participation: This may seem painfully obvious, but it can be easily overlooked. Employees must understand the program, why it is necessary, how it will benefit them, and how to use it. You must find ways to motivate them to use the program and reward them for reaching certain goals.”
- “But as we all know, most serious illnesses are significantly less expensive to treat when they are caught early, before they can cause catastrophic disruption in the employee’s life.”
Book: Presenteeism - The Invisible Cost to Organizations – 2013
Kindle rent $7
Large book. Compares and contrasts many Presenteeism surveys.
The surveys ask how many of hours of the day the employee was unproductive, and by how much
Presenteeism reduces productivity (Vitamin D can help)
- Webinar - How To Reduce Absenteeism & Presenteeism in the Workplace July 2018, 47 minutes
- Absenteeism, Presenteeism and Employee Engagement March 2017, 45 minutes
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