Table of contents
- Reducing Virus Infection Risk in Space Environments through Nutrient Supplementation
- Clipped from PDF
- Gene analysis found that EGCG has the potential to help, vitamin D, with >700 RCT has proven to help
- See related in VitaminDWiki
- VitaminDWiki pages with Epstein Barr Virus or EBV in title (13 as of Aug 2022)
- VitaminDWiki pages with URINARY TRACT OR UTI in title (8 as of Aug 2022)
August 2022 Genes 13(9):1536; DOI: 10.3390/genes13091536
Hui LiYa-Wen XueYuan QuanHong-Yu Zhang
Space exploration has brought many challenges to human physiology. In order to evaluate and reduce possible pathological reactions triggered by space environments, we conducted bioinformatics analyses on the methylation data of the Mars 520 mission and human transcriptome data in the experiment simulating gravity changes. The results suggest that gene expression levels and DNA methylation levels were changed under the conditions of isolation and gravity changes, and multiple viral infection-related pathways were found in the enrichment analysis results of changed genes including Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KHSV) infection. In this study, we found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and vitamin D are helpful in reducing viral infection risk. In addition, the causal associations between nutrients and viral infections were calculated using Two sample Mendelian Randomization (2SMR) method, the results indicated that vitamin D can reduce EBV infection and HBV infection risk. In summary, our study suggests that space environments increase the risk of human viral infection, which may be reduced by supplementing EGCG and vitamin D. These results can be used to formulate medical plans for astronauts, which have practical application value for future space exploration.
Immune dysfunction occurs during space flight , which is characterized by changes in immune cell function and reactivation of latent viruses . Diseases caused by immunosuppression may occur during prolonged flight missions, including bacterial,fungal, and viral infections . According to relevant statistics, in NASA's 106 spaceflights up to 2012, 29 astronauts suffered from infectious diseases in space (i.e.,
- eight people with a fever/chills,
- five people with a fungal infection,
- three people with a flu-like illness,
- four people with a urinary tract infection,
- three people with aphthous stomatitis
- two people with viral gastroenteritis,
- two people with a subcutaneous skin infection, and
- two people with other viral diseases) .
Dormant viruses respond to the stress of spaceflight, such as viruses such as herpes simplex that are reactivated in humans during spaceflight [16-18]. Herpes virus is a highly prevalent virus that has been co-evolved with humans for thousands of years, after the primary infection, the herpes virus is in the incubation period for life and is usually asymptomatic in immune-competent individuals. In some cases, herpes virus reactivation may eventually lead to symptoms such as specific dermatitis in astronauts . One study has reported that 47 of 89 (53%) astronauts from the Space Shuttle and 14 of 23 (61%) astronauts from the ISS shed one or more herpes viruses in saliva/urine samples . Mehta et al., detected EBV, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and HSV1 in the saliva of astronauts and detected Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the urine of astronauts . Stowe et al., detected gene-replicating viral transcripts of EBV in peripheral blood B lymphocytes of six astronauts on short-term space missions (about 11 days) and six astronauts on long-term missions on the ISS (about 180 days) .
In addition, microgravity affects the virulence of potential microbial pathogens. Bacteria appear to thrive in weightless environments—pathogens can develop thicker cell walls , and ongoing research suggests that enhanced bacterial virulence in space may reduce the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment .
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Gene analysis found that EGCG has the potential to help, vitamin D, with >700 RCT has proven to help
Gene analysis found that green Tea (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) taken many times a day (it has a short half life) "should" help
- Take the supplement of the astronauts
- Recommended increasing vitamin D for space flight – NASA Sept 2013
- NASA might save 700,000 dollars a day by giving astronauts enough Vitamin D
- Did NOT include the benefit of fighting viral infections
- Hepatitis B virus and Vitamin D - many studies
This list is automatically updated
This list is automatically updated