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Early menarche, miscarriage and stillbirth are associated with heart disease (all are associated with low Vitamin D) – Jan 2018

Reproductive Factors in Women Tied to Heart Disease and Stroke Risk New York Times, Jan 2018

Reproductive FactorIncreased risk
of Heart Disease
Menarche before age 12 5 %
Miscarriage4 %
Stillbirth14 %

Conclusion is the study in HEART http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312289 - which is available at Sci-Hub.tw

  • Early menarche, early menopause, earlier age at first birth, and a history of miscarriage, stillbirth or hysterectomy were each independently associated with a higher risk of CVD in later life
  • In conclusion, this large prospective study among 482000 women and men in the UK Biobank demonstrated that several reproductive factors are associated with the risk of CVD in later life. Future studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to clarify the biological, behavioural and social mechanisms involved.

Note: Neither the study nor the New York Times article contains the word VITAMIN

VitaminDWiki contains the following

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

Vit. D
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

Created by admin. Last Modification: Tuesday September 20, 2022 17:06:40 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 9)