Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study
J Am Coll Nutr . 2021 Feb 18;1-16. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580.
Marco Infante 1 2 3, Andrea Buoso 4 5, Massimo Pieri 6 7, Santina Lupisella 6, Marzia Nuccetelli 6, Sergio Bernardini 6 7, Andrea Fabbri 1, Marco Iannetta 4 5, Massimo Andreoni 4 5, Vittorio Colizzi 8, Maria Morello 6 7
Objective: Preliminary findings suggest a relationship between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D levels and incidence and severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status at admission and different markers of inflammation, coagulation, and sepsis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Method: We conducted a retrospective study on 137 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and available data on serum 25(OH)D levels, who were admitted to our Institution between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: survivors (n = 78; 57%) and non-survivors (n = 59; 43%).
Results: At admission, all patients showed hypovitaminosis D. Median total serum 25(OH)D levels at admission were significantly higher in survivors than non-survivors (12 ng/mL vs 8 ng/mL; p < 0.01).
Non-survivors exhibited significantly higher median levels of
- white blood cell (WBC) count,
- neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR),
- high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP),
- interleukin 6 (IL-6),
- fibrinogen, and
- procalcitonin (PCT)
compared to survivors at three different time points during hospitalization. In a multivariate analysis performed by a logistic regression model, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.98; p = 0.01). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, hsCRP, NLR, ferritin, and D-dimer were the best predictive biomarkers for poor prognosis of COVID-19, whereas IL-6, PCT, fibrinogen, 25(OH)D, WBC count, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) may serve as supportive biomarkers for worse clinical course of the disease.
Conclusions: We found a markedly high prevalence (100%) of hypovitaminosis D in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, suggesting a possible role of low vitamin D status in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent hospitalization. The inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of in-hospital mortality observed in our cohort suggests that a lower vitamin D status upon admission may represent a modifiable and independent risk factor for poor prognosis in COVID-19.
- COVID-19 mortality for Blacks is 5X that for whites in 2 LA Hospitals - July 2021
- COVID-19 mortality was associated with vitamin D deficiency of 47 countries – July 2021
- Similar death rate for Vaccination and COVID-19 study and video – June 24, 2021
- COVID-19 death in hospital 5X more likely if low vs high vitamin D – preprint June 2021
- COVID-19 deaths 1.7X more likely if low vitamin D (even after “adjusting” for low D health problems) – May 2021
- COVID-19 deaths 1.5X less likely if more than 40 ng of vitamin D – US VA – April 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation and high levels reduce COVID-19 deaths in elderly – Review April 17, 2021
- Less COVID-19 infection, mortality in countries with higher Vitamin D (Asia in this case) – May 2021
- COVID-19 was the third-leading cause of death in the US, especially in those with dark skins - April 1, 2021
- Risk of COVID-19 death was 4.9 X higher if very low vitamin D – March 31, 2021
- COVID-19 mortality 2X higher if low Vitamin D (Mexican hospital, preprint) - March 2021
- All COVID-19 patients had low vitamin D, the lowest were more likely to die – Feb 18, 2021
- 2.7 fewer COVID-19 hospital deaths in those having more than 30 ng of vitamin D – Mayo Jan 9, 2021
- Worse COVID-19 patients got 400,000 IU of vitamin D, deaths cut in half – Jan 14, 2021
- Iranians with COVID-19 were 2.3 X more likely to die if low vitamin D – Jan 2021
- Poor COVID-19 prognosis was 6 X more likely if low vitamin D – Jan 21, 2021
- 30 x fewer COVID-19 deaths in those getting 400,000 IU of Vitamin D - Jan 2021
- 2.8 X fewer COVID-19 nursing home deaths if add 10,000 IU Vitamin D daily for a week (small observation)- Jan 2021
- Italian nursing home COVID-19 – 4X less likely to die if taking Vitamin D– Dec 22, 2020
- Shift workers 2X more likely to get COVID-19 (low Vitamin D) - Dec 2020
- Those getting intermittent vitamin D were 7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 - Dec 11, 2020
- COVID-19 male mortality increased 3.9 X if low vitamin D – observation Nov 25, 2020
- Hospital COVID-19 observation: 7X more likely to live if more than 20 ng of vitamin D– Nov 19, 2020
- COVID-19 lung death 4X more likely in Iran if less than 25 ng of vitamin D – Oct 30, 2020
- COVID-19 was killing dark-skinned doctors, then they got a Vitamin D recommendation
- 9X COVID-19 survival in nursing home if had 80,000 IU dose of vitamin D in previous month – Oct 2020
- 14.7 X more likely to die of COVID-19 if less than 12 ng of Vitamin D (185 Germans) – Sept 10, 2020
- COVID ARDS deaths 2X more likely if less than 10 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 8, 2020
- COVID-19 mortality rate highest North of 35 degrees latitude (Vitamin D) – April 20, 2020
- COVID-19 more frequent and deadly for those with dark skins (high risk of low vitamin D)
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