The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Leila Nikniaz , Mohammad Amin Akbarzadeh2,3,4, Hossein Hosseinifard5, Mohammad-Salar
Hosseini2,3,4 hosseini.msalar at gmail.com
- COVID-19 5X more likely to be severe if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 13th meta-analysis July 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- COVID-19 mortality 3X more likely if low vitamin D (999,179 people) – meta-analysis March 29, 2021
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections reduced by Vitamin D - overview of 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
As of Aug 1, the page had: 34 trials, 6 trial results, 21 meta-analyses and reviews, 62 observations, 34 recommendations, 55 associations, 89 speculations, 45 videos see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccine problems
Background: Several studies have suggested the positive impact of vitamin D on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes and mortality rate of COVID-19 patients.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted through the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library with no limitation in time and language, until December 16, 2020. The results were screened based on their accordance with the subject. Two independent reviewers selected the eligible studies and the outcomes of interest were extracted. Using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tools for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Quasi-Experimental Studies, the remaining results were appraised critically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 2.0.
Results: Of the 2311 results, 1305 duplicated results were removed. After screening the titles, abstracts, and the full-text articles of the remaining records, four studies and 259 patients were enrolled, including 139 patients in vitamin D intervention groups. In three of the studies, the patients’ survival and mortality rate were evaluated. The pooled analysis of these studies showed a significantly lower mortality rate among the intervention groups (10.56%) compared with the control groups (23.88%) (OR = 0.264, 95% CI = 0.099-0.708, p-value = 0.008). Two of the studies reported the clinical outcomes based on the World Health Organization’s Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) score for COVID-19, where both of them showed a significant decrease in OSCI score in the vitamin D intervention groups. Additionally, One study reported a lower rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and one study reported a significant decrease in serum levels of Fibrinogen.
Conclusion: Prescribing vitamin D supplementation to patients with COVID-19 infection seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. Further studies are needed to determine the ideal type, dosage and duration of supplementation.