Vitamin D Status Is Associated With Functional Limitations and Functional Decline in Older Individuals
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism September 1, 2013 vol. 98 no. 9 E1483-E1490
E. Sohl, N. M. van Schoor, R. T. de Jongh, M. Visser, D. J. H. Deeg and P. Lips
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (E.S., N.M.v.S., M.V., D.J.H.D.) and Department of Health Sciences (M.V.), EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology (R.T.d.J., P.L.), and Department of Psychiatry (D.J.H.D.), VU University Medical Center, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: N. M. van Schoor, VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Van der Boechorststraat 7, Room A517, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: nm.vanschoor at vumc.nl.
Context: Vitamin D is known to influence muscle health. A reduction in muscle mass increases the risk of functional limitations among older individuals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between vitamin D status and functional limitations.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Two independent cohorts of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used.
Participants were aged
- 65 to 88 years (older cohort, n = 1237; baseline 1995) and
- 55 to 65 years (younger cohort, n = 725; baseline 2002).
Main Outcome Measures: Questions on the ability and degree of difficulty to perform 6 functions of daily life were asked.
Results: Of the participants, 56% in the older cohort and 30% in the younger cohort had ≥1 limitation. Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D level of <20 ng/mL) compared with the value in the reference group (>30 ng/mL) was related to the presence of functional limitations at baseline (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.5 and OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.3–3.7 for the older and younger cohorts, respectively).
In the older cohort, vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increase in limitations at 3 years (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.5), whereas vitamin D deficiency in the younger cohort was associated with an increase in limitations at 6 years (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1–10.1).
Analyses were adjusted for confounders.
Conclusion: Vitamin D status is associated with functional limitations cross-sectionally and longitudinally in individuals aged 55 to 65 years and those 65 years and older. The possible association of vitamin D with functional limitations is present after a shorter follow-up time in the oldest age group compared with the younger age group.
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