Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently.
International journal of Infectious Diseases, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.05.014
Rengina Vorou, Hellenic Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece
This is the first time I have seen anything about non-human carriers of Zika
The following one was published 2 months later
Zika virus can be spread by animals, not just by humans – July 2016
- The aim of this review is to present the wide distribution of Zika virus in animal hosts and vectors and to stress the lack of evidence about the animals capable of being reservoirs or amplification hosts and their vectorial capacity.
- It is highlighted that the RNA structure of the virus facilitates the emergence of recombinants and, additionally, its circulation in a wide range of animals and vectors in West Africa has also been correlated with such emergence, a fact that raises concerns regarding the potential of a novel clinical presentation.
- It is highlighted that in Africa, Zika virus has been isolated in mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Anopheles, and Mansonia.
- It is stressed that while in South America, southeastern Asia and the Pacific, Aedes aegypti is the principal vector, A. albopictus is being established as a competent vector as well, having invaded Central Africa, the Mediterranean and parts of Central and Northern Europe. .
- It is highlighted that antibodies against the virus have been detected in domestic sheep and goats, horses, cows, ducks, rodents, bats, orangutans, and carabaos in southeastern Asia, separate from the strains of the virus isolated from monkeys in Africa.
- It is discussed that it is a public health emergency to define the domestic or wild animal reservoirs and amplification hosts, as well as the vectorial capacity of the genera Aedes, Anophelines, and Mansonia as they will define the geographic distribution of Zika virus and the indicated public health interventions worldwide.
The widespread epidemic of Zika virus infection in South and Central America and the Caribbean in 2015 along with increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with Zika virus and a potential for a worldwide spread indicate the need to review the current literature regarding vectors, reservoirs and amplification hosts.
The virus has been isolated in Africa in mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Mansonia, as well as in Aedes in Southeastern Asia and the Pacific area. Aedes albopictus has invaded several countries in Central Africa and all Mediterranean countries and continues to spread throughout Central and Northern Europe. The wide distribution of the virus in animal hosts and vectors favors the emergence of its recombinants.
The virus has been isolated in monkeys, and antibodies have been detected in domestic sheep, goats, horses, cows, ducks, rodents, bats, orangutans, and carabaos.
It is a public health imperative to define the domestic or wild animal reservoirs, amplification hosts and vectorial capacity of the genera Aedes, Anophelines, and Mansonia. These variables will define the geographic distribution of Zika virus along with the indicated timing and scale of the environmental public health interventions worldwide.
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“The question of whether birds transfer the virus over long distances remains unanswered 15” (1983)
Reference #9 - Pakistan 1983
Darwish MA, Hoogstraal H, Roberts TJ, Ahmed IP, Omar F. A sero-epidemiological survey for certain arboviruses (Togaviridae) in Pakistan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1983;77:442-5.
- Zika birth defects may be prevented by Vitamin D – May 2016
- How to significantly reduce your risk of contracting the Zika virus
- http://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/qa-animals.html updated April 2016
"At this time, animals do not appear to be involved in the spread of Zika virus."
"There is no evidence that Zika virus is spread to people from contact with animals"
"There is also limited evidence from one study done in Indonesia in the late 1970s that horses, cows, carabaos (water buffaloes), goats, ducks, and bats could become infected with Zika, but there is no evidence that they develop disease or pose a risk for Zika virus transmission to humans"
"Monkeys and apes develop antibodies to Zika virus within 14 days of infection; once antibodies develop, a person or primate can no longer spread the virus"